Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets


Results of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission


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      Large shield volcanoes on the Moon (pages 1063–1081)

      Paul D. Spudis, Patrick J. McGovern and Walter S. Kiefer

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/jgre.20059

      Key Points

      • Large bulges in lunar maria are shield volcanoes
      • Lunar shields span range of ages similar to mare basalts
      • Lunar shields are comparable in size and shape to those on other objects
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      High spatial resolution studies of epithermal neutron emission from the lunar poles: Constraints on hydrogen mobility

      W. V. Boynton, G. F. Droege, I. G. Mitrofanov, T. P. McClanahan, A. B. Sanin, M. L. Litvak, M. Schaffner, G. Chin, L. G. Evans, J. B. Garvin, K. Harshman, A. Malakhov, G. Milikh, R. Sagdeev and R. Starr

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003979

      Key Points

      • LEND is well calibrated and has excellent spatial resolution
      • Even ignoring NSRs, H content increases with latitude at North and South Poles
      • Increase in H is due to thermal volatilization being ineffective at the poles
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      The origin of Ina: Evidence for inflated lava flows on the Moon

      W. B. Garry, M. S. Robinson, J. R. Zimbelman, J. E. Bleacher, B. R. Hawke, L. S. Crumpler, S. E. Braden and H. Sato

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003981

      Key Points

      • LROC NAC derived DTMs allow for comparisons with terrestrial field observations
      • The dimensions of features in Ina are similar to terrestrial inflated flows
      • We suggest the features on the floor of Ina formed by lava inflation processes
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      LEND neutron data processing for the mapping of the Moon

      M. L. Litvak, I. G. Mitrofanov, A. B. Sanin, D. V. Golovin, A. V. Malakhov, W. V. Boynton, G. F. Droege, K. Harshman, R. D. Starr, G. Milikh and R. Sagdeev

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE004035

      Key Points

      • Description of LEND/LRO instrument, measurements and data types
      • Discussion of LEND/LRO data reduction procedures
      • Global mapping of Moon neutron flux in different energy bands
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      Dating small fresh lunar craters with Mini-RF radar observations of ejecta blankets

      Samuel W. Bell, Bradley J. Thomson, M. Darby Dyar, Catherine D. Neish, Joshua T. S. Cahill and D. B. J. Bussey

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE004007

      Key Points

      • We have developed a new technique for dating fresh lunar impact craters
      • Our results agree with the ages of craters dated from Apollo samples
      • We have produced a model of ejecta retention as a function of crater diameter
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      Geology of the King crater region: New insights into impact melt dynamics on the Moon

      J. W. Ashley, M. S. Robinson, B. R. Hawke, C. H. van der Bogert, H. Hiesinger, H. Sato, E. J. Speyerer, A. C. Enns, R. V. Wagner, K. E. Young and K. N. Burns

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003990

      Key Points

      • High-resolution images permit detailed geomorphic mapping of lunar features
      • Impact melt accumulations can remain dynamic reservoirs after cratering events
      • Subsurface voids within melt ponds may provide access to protected environments
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      Analysis of lunar pyroclastic deposit FeO abundances by LRO Diviner

      Carlton C. Allen, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Kerri L. Donaldson Hanna and David A. Paige

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003982

      Key Points

      • Thermal IR spectra closely correlate to FeO in lunar soil
      • This correlation is extended to FeO in pyroclastic glass samples
      • Orbital thermal IR spectra can provide FeO in lunar pyroclastic deposits
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      Testing polar spots of water-rich permafrost on the Moon: LEND observations onboard LRO

      I. Mitrofanov, M. Litvak, A. Sanin, A. Malakhov, D. Golovin, W. Boynton, G. Droege, G. Chin, L. Evans, K. Harshman, F. Fedosov, J. Garvin, A. Kozyrev, T. McClanahan, G. Milikh, M. Mokrousov, R. Starr, R. Sagdeev, V. Shevchenko, V. Shvetsov, V. Tret'yakov, J. Trombka, A. Varenikov and A. Vostrukhin

      Article first published online: 20 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003956

      Key Points

      • Neutron suppression regions and neutron excess regions discovered
      • Empirical law
      • Water-ice rich permafrost spots may be identified with these regions on the Moon
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      Testing lunar permanently shadowed regions for water ice: LEND results from LRO

      A. B. Sanin, I. G. Mitrofanov, M. L. Litvak, A. Malakhov, W. V. Boynton, G. Chin, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, J. Garvin, D. V. Golovin, K. Harshman, T. P. McClanahan, M. I. Mokrousov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Neumann, R. Sagdeev, D. E. Smith, R. D. Starr and M. T. Zuber

      Article first published online: 15 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003971

      Key Points

      • Latest LEND measurements of neutron fluxes from the Moon are presented
      • Comparison of neutron flux within large PSRs and in sunlit regions is discussed
      • Only three large PSRs manifest significant neutron suppression
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      Characterization of previously unidentified lunar pyroclastic deposits using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera data

      J. Olaf Gustafson, J. F. Bell III, L. R. Gaddis, B. R. Hawke and T. A. Giguere

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003893

      Key Points

      • Twelve new lunar pyroclastic deposits were identified using LROC data
      • New farside deposits were identified that are removed from other known deposits
      • Distribution of such deposits is important for understanding lunar volcanism
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      The first cosmic ray albedo proton map of the Moon

      Jody K. Wilson, Harlan E. Spence, Justin Kasper, Michael Golightly, J. Bern Blake, Joe E. Mazur, Lawrence W. Townsend, Anthony W. Case, Mark Dixon Looper, Cary Zeitlin and Nathan A. Schwadron

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003921

      Key Points

      • The albedo proton yield is spatially uniform over the Moon's surface
      • The albedo/primary proton ratio at the Moon is within a factor of 3 of Earth's
      • The lunar albedo proton yield is increasing as solar activity increases
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      New observational evidence of global seismic effects of basin-forming impacts on the Moon from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter data

      M. A. Kreslavsky and J. W. Head

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003975

      Key Points

      • Maps of topographic roughness and concavity are derived from LOLA data
      • Orientale ejecta have unique roughness/concavity signature
      • Orientale impact caused global smoothing due to seismic shaking
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      Global maps of lunar neutron fluxes from the LEND instrument

      M. L. Litvak, I. G. Mitrofanov, A. Sanin, A. Malakhov, W. V. Boynton, G. Chin, G. Droege, L. G. Evans, J. Garvin, D. V. Golovin, K. Harshman, T. P. McClanahan, M. I. Mokrousov, E. Mazarico, G. Milikh, G. Neumann, R. Sagdeev, D. E. Smith, R. Starr and M. T. Zuber

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003949

      Key Points

      • Latest neutron spectroscopy data of the Moon are presented
      • Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron flux global maps are disscussed
      • Comparison LEND and LPNS data are presented
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      The m-chi decomposition of hybrid dual-polarimetric radar data with application to lunar craters

      R. Keith Raney, Joshua T. S. Cahill, G. Wesley Patterson and D. Benjamin J. Bussey

      Article first published online: 18 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003986

      Key Points

      • Mini-RF data can be used to understand the scattering properties of the Moon
      • An m-chi decomposition provides insight on properties of craters and ejecta
      • M-chi is a new technique in the field of radar astronomy
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      Mapping the Apollo 17 landing site area based on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images and Apollo surface photography

      I. Haase, J. Oberst, F. Scholten, M. Wählisch, P. Gläser, I. Karachevtseva and M. S. Robinson

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003908

      Key Points

      • We did a cartographic study of the Apollo 17 site for a new Traverse Map
      • Astronaut and surface feature positions were identified in LROC NAC orthoimages
      • Mapped sampling sites and ALSEP locations provide reference for other data sets
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      Statistics for orbital neutron spectroscopy of the Moon and other airless planetary bodies

      R. S. Miller

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003984

      Key Points

      • New statistical technique for orbital neutron spectroscopy
      • Addresses deficiencies in current statistical analysis approaches
      • Shows that sensitivity of LEND is lower than expected
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      Lunar equatorial surface temperatures and regolith properties from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

      Ashwin R. Vasavada, Joshua L. Bandfield, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Paul O. Hayne, Matthew A. Siegler, Jean-Pierre Williams and David A. Paige

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003987

      Key Points

      • LRO Diviner reveals radiative and thermophysical properties of the lunar surface
      • Lunar daytime temperatures require albedo dependence on solar incidence angle
      • Lunar nighttime temperatures require graded structure in upper cm of regolith
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      GLD100: The near-global lunar 100 m raster DTM from LROC WAC stereo image data

      F. Scholten, J. Oberst, K.-D. Matz, T. Roatsch, M. Wählisch, E. J. Speyerer and M. S. Robinson

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003926

      Key Points

      • New lunar topography model
      • The 100 meter lunar raster DTM
      • Stereo-photogrammetry using LROC WAC
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      Impact melt in small lunar highland craters

      J. B. Plescia and M. J. Cintala

      Article first published online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003941

      Key Points

      • Impact melt occurs as pools in lunar craters as small as 170 m
      • Target and projectile properties cannot explain this observation
      • These craters are interpreted as vertical impacts such that melt is retained
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      The transition from complex craters to multi-ring basins on the Moon: Quantitative geometric properties from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data

      David M. H. Baker, James W. Head, Gregory A. Neumann, David E. Smith and Maria T. Zuber

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE004021

      Key Points

      • We use new techniques for extracting the geometries of lunar impact basins
      • New geometric trends for protobasins and peak-ring basins are presented
      • Constraints are placed on the impact processes controlling the geometric trends
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      The wavelength dependence of the lunar phase curve as seen by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter wide-angle camera

      Bruce Hapke, Brett Denevi, Hiroyuki Sato, Sarah Braden and Mark Robinson

      Article first published online: 15 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003916

      Key Points

      • Coherent backscattering is important in the lunar opposition effect
      • Lunar phase reddening is caused by multiple scattering
      • The coherent backscattering opposition effect is not fully understood
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      Origin of lunar sinuous rilles: Modeling effects of gravity, surface slope, and lava composition on erosion rates during the formation of Rima Prinz

      Debra M. Hurwitz, James W. Head, Lionel Wilson and Harald Hiesinger

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE004000

      Key Points

      • Thermal erosion is primarily responsible for the formation of Rima Prinz
      • Mechanical erosion may be dominant for initial erosion into lunar regolith
      • Komatiite erodes most efficiently while high-Ti basalt erodes least efficiently
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      Lunar radiation environment and space weathering from the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER)

      N. A. Schwadron, T. Baker, B. Blake, A. W. Case, J. F. Cooper, M. Golightly, A. Jordan, C. Joyce, J. Kasper, K. Kozarev, J. Mislinski, J. Mazur, A. Posner, O. Rother, S. Smith, H. E. Spence, L. W. Townsend, J. Wilson and C. Zeitlin

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003978

      Key Points

      • Direct measurements of galactic cosmic ray dose rates on lunar surface
      • Direct validation of radiation specification and prediction at the Moon
      • Direct measurements of the effects of space weathering at the Moon
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      Morphometric analysis of small-scale lobate scarps on the Moon using data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

      M. E. Banks, T. R. Watters, M. S. Robinson, L. L. Tornabene, T. Tran, L. Ojha and N. R. Williams

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003907

      Key Points

      • Analysis of lunar lobate scarp morphology
      • Comparison of lunar lobate scarps to lobate scarps on Mars, Mercury, and Eros
      • Analysis of the horizontal shortening expressed by lunar lobate scarps
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      How old are young lunar craters?

      H. Hiesinger, C. H. van der Bogert, J. H. Pasckert, L. Funcke, L. Giacomini, L. R. Ostrach and M. S. Robinson

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003935

      Key Points

      • New CSFD measurements for Copernicus better fit the lunar chronologies
      • Our new crater counts are consistent with sample ages from Ap12, 16, 17
      • Discrepancies in CSFDs between different impact units are discussed
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      Initial observations of lunar impact melts and ejecta flows with the Mini-RF radar

      Lynn M. Carter, Catherine D. Neish, D. B. J. Bussey, Paul D. Spudis, G. Wesley Patterson, Joshua T. Cahill and R. Keith Raney

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003911

      Key Points

      • The Mini-RF radar observes impact melt and ejecta debris flows on the Moon
      • The impact melt flows are typically extremely rough
      • Many melt flows have a change in backscatter caused by lava-like flow features
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      Photogeologic analysis of impact melt-rich lithologies in Kepler crater that could be sampled by future missions

      Teemu Öhman and David A. Kring

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003918

      Key Points

      • Impact melt-rich lithologies are observed asymmetrically in and around Kepler
      • Impact melt flows imply a yield strength of ~1-10 kPa
      • Fractures and pits (possible caves) are abundant in melt-rich crater floor
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      Modeling of the vapor release from the LCROSS impact: 2. Observations from LAMP

      Dana M. Hurley, G. Randall Gladstone, S. Alan Stern, Kurt D. Retherford, Paul D. Feldman, Wayne Pryor, Anthony F. Egan, Thomas K. Greathouse, David E. Kaufmann, Andrew J. Steffl, Joel William Parker, Paul F. Miles, David Horvath, Michael W. Davis, Maarten H. Versteeg, David C. Slater, Amanda R. Hendrix, Charles A. Hibbitts, Carolyn M. Ernst, Ronald J. Vervack Jr. and Gregory A. Grieves

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003841

      Key Points

      • LCROSS released 117 kg H2, 41 kg CO, 16 kg Ca, 12.4 kg Hg, and 3.8 kg Mg
      • Modeling suggests a vapor plume bulk velocity of 3-4 km/s
      • The vapor observed by LAMP was released promptly by LCROSS
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      Lunar impact basins: Stratigraphy, sequence and ages from superposed impact crater populations measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) data

      C. I. Fassett, J. W. Head, S. J. Kadish, E. Mazarico, G. A. Neumann, D. E. Smith and M. T. Zuber

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003951

      Key Points

      • New measurements of crater statistics and stratigraphy for 30 lunar basins
      • Any transition in lunar impactor populations occurred before the mid-Nectarian
      • The oldest lunar basins are likely cratered to saturation equilibrium
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      Thermal infrared emissivity measurements under a simulated lunar environment: Application to the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

      Kerri L. Donaldson Hanna, Michael B. Wyatt, Ian R. Thomas, Neil E. Bowles, Benjamin T. Greenhagen, Alessandro Maturilli, Joern Helbert and David A. Paige

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003862

      Key Points

      • New thermal infrared emission spectra of silicates under lunar conditions
      • Characterize spectral differences between ambient and lunar conditions spectra
      • Resample lab spectra to Diviner resolution to apply to new remotely sensed data
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      Far-ultraviolet reflectance properties of the Moon's permanently shadowed regions

      G. Randall Gladstone, Kurt D. Retherford, Anthony F. Egan, David E. Kaufmann, Paul F. Miles, Joel W. Parker, David Horvath, Paul M. Rojas, Maarten H. Versteeg, Michael W. Davis, Thomas K. Greathouse, David C. Slater, Joey Mukherjee, Andrew J. Steffl, Paul D. Feldman, Dana M. Hurley, Wayne R. Pryor, Amanda R. Hendrix, Erwan Mazarico and S. Alan Stern

      Article first published online: 7 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003913

      Key Points

      • New FUV albedo maps of the Moon's poles are presented
      • Most permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) have low FUV albedos
      • Most PSRs are relatively red at long FUV wavelengths
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      The Sculptured Hills of the Taurus Highlands: Implications for the relative age of Serenitatis, basin chronologies and the cratering history of the Moon

      Paul D. Spudis, Don E. Wilhelms and Mark S. Robinson

      Article first published online: 31 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003903

      Key Points

      • New images show lunar Serenitatis basin is relatively old, not young
      • An old Serenitatis means that Apollo 17 impact melts may not date that basin
      • Either early Moon had impact cataclysm or geology is not understood
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      Lunar surface rock abundance and regolith fines temperatures derived from LRO Diviner Radiometer data

      Joshua L. Bandfield, Rebecca R. Ghent, Ashwin R. Vasavada, David A. Paige, Samuel J. Lawrence and Mark S. Robinson

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1029/2011JE003866

      Key Points

      • Global rock concentration and regolith fines temperature maps have been produced
      • Most lunar surfaces except steep slopes have low rock concentrations
      • Global thermophysical units have been identified

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