eLS

eLS

Online ISBN: 9780470015902

DOI: 10.1002/047001590X

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  1. Biochemistry
  2. Bioethics & Philosophy
  3. Cell Biology
  4. Developmental Biology
  5. Ecology
  6. Evolution & Diversity of Life
  7. Genetics & Disease
  8. Immunology
  9. Microbiology
  10. Molecular Biology
    1. Chromosomes and Chromatin Modifications
    2. Computational Molecular Biology
    3. DNA Damage and Repair
    4. DNA Structure and function
      1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated Transformation of Plant Cells
      2. Alternative Promoter Usage
      3. Apolipoprotein Gene Structure and Function
      4. Bacillus subtilis as a Model for Bacterial Systems Biology
      5. Bacterial DNA Polymerase I
      6. Bacterial Primosome
      7. Bacterial Replication Fork: Synthesis of Lagging Strand
      8. You have free access to this content
        Bacterial Transcription Regulation
      9. Base Composition Patterns
      10. Base Flipping
      11. Base Pairing in DNA: Unusual Patterns
      12. Basepair (bp)
      13. Blocks of Limited Haplotype Diversity
      14. Caenorhabditis elegans Genome Project
      15. Cancer Cytogenetics
      16. Cell Death in C. elegans
      17. Centromeres
      18. Centromeres
      19. Centromeric Sequences and Sequence Structures
      20. Checkpoints in the Cell Cycle
      21. Chromatin Diminution
      22. Chromatin Structure and Domains
      23. Chromatin Structure and Modification: Defects
      24. Chromosomal Bands and Sequence Features
      25. Chromosomal Genetic Disease: Structural Aberrations
      26. Chromosome 22: Sequencing
      27. Chromosome Condensation and Cohesion
      28. Chromosome Function: Sex Differences
      29. Chromosome Mechanics
      30. You have free access to this content
        Chromosome Preparation and Banding
      31. You have free access to this content
        Chromosome Structure
      32. Chromosome X
      33. You have free access to this content
        Chromosome X: General Features
      34. Chromosome Y
      35. Chromosome-specific Repeats (Low-copy Repeats)
      36. Chromosomes and Chromatin
      37. Chromosomes: Noncoding DNA (Including Satellite DNA)
      38. Chromosomes: Nonhistone Proteins
      39. Clustering of Highly Expressed Genes in the Human Genome
      40. Comparative Chromosome Mapping: Rodent Models
      41. Comparative Cytogenetics Technologies
      42. Comparing the Human and Fish Genomes
      43. Contig Assembly
      44. Cot Analysis: Single-copy versus Repetitive DNA
      45. CpG Islands and DNA Methylation
      46. Cre–lox-Inducible Gene Targeting
      47. Crystallisation of Nucleic Acids
      48. Developmentally Programmed DNA Rearrangements
      49. DNA Chemical Instability
      50. DNA Chip Revolution
      51. DNA Cloning
      52. DNA Coiling and Unwinding
      53. DNA Looping and Transcription Regulation
      54. DNA Mechanics and Statistical Mechanics
      55. DNA Methylation
      56. DNA Methylation and Histone Acetylation
      57. DNA Methylation and Mutation
      58. DNA Methylation: Enzymology
      59. DNA Packaging in Sperm
      60. DNA Polymerase Fidelity Mechanisms
      61. DNA Polymerases: Eukaryotic
      62. You have free access to this content
        DNA Profiling in Forensic Science
      63. You have free access to this content
        DNA Replication
      64. You have free access to this content
        DNA Replication Fidelity
      65. DNA Replication Origins
      66. DNA Replication: Mammalian
      67. DNA Replication: Prokaryotes and Yeast
      68. DNA Sequencing
      69. DNA Structure
      70. DNA Structure Changes Coupled to Protein Binding
      71. DNA Structure: A-, B- and Z-DNA Helix Families
      72. DNA Structure: Sequence Effects
      73. DNA Topology: Fundamentals
      74. DNA Topology: Supercoiling and Linking
      75. DNA Transposition: Classes and Mechanisms
      76. DNA: Mechanical Breakage
      77. DNA: Methods for Preparation
      78. DNA/RNA Flexibility
      79. Electrophoresis and Blotting of DNA
      80. Enhancers
      81. Environmental Carcinogens and Mutagens
      82. You have free access to this content
        Escherichia coli Lactose Operon
      83. Eukaryotic Chromosomes
      84. Eukaryotic DNA Polymerases
      85. Eukaryotic Recombination: Initiation by Double-strand Breaks
      86. Eukaryotic Replication Fork
      87. Eukaryotic Replication Origins and Initiation of DNA Replication
      88. Eukaryotic Replication Protein A
      89. Evolution of Human Retrosequences: Alu
      90. Evolution of Microsatellite DNA
      91. Exonic Splicing Enhancers
      92. Exonucleases
      93. Expression Studies
      94. Fragile Sites
      95. Functional Constraint and Molecular Evolution
      96. Gene Conversion
      97. Gene Distribution in Human Chromosomes
      98. Gene Duplication and Redundancy
      99. Gene Expression in Yeast
      100. Gene Families
      101. You have free access to this content
        Gene Silencing in Development (Drosophila)
      102. You have free access to this content
        Gene Structure and Organization
      103. Gene Synthesis for Protein Production
      104. Gene Targeting by Homologous Recombination
      105. Genes: Definition and Structure
      106. Genes: Types
      107. Genetic and Physical Map Correlation
      108. Genetic Code: Introduction
      109. Genetic Engineering: Reporter Genes
      110. Genetic Mapping: Comparison of Direct and Indirect Approaches
      111. Genetic Maps: Direct Meiotic Analysis
      112. Genetic Maps: Integration
      113. Genetic Networks
      114. Genome Databases
      115. Genome Organization of Vertebrates
      116. Genome Sequence Analysis
      117. Genome Size
      118. Genomic DNA: Purification
      119. Genomics, Pharmacogenetics and Proteomics: An Integration
      120. Hidden Markov Models
      121. Histidine Triad (HIT) Superfamily
      122. Histone Acetylation: Long-range Patterns in the Genome
      123. Histones
      124. Histones: Gene Organisation and Post-translational Modification
      125. HMG Domain Superfamily of DNA-bending Proteins: HMG, UBF, TCF, LEF, SOX, SRY and Related Proteins
      126. Homologous DNA Interactions in Interphase: Spatial Organization of Interphase Nucleus
      127. Homologous Genetic Recombination during Bacterial Conjugation
      128. Homologous Genetic Recombination in Eukaryotes
      129. Human Chromosome Evolution
      130. Human Chromosomes
      131. Human Genome Variation Society
      132. Human Genome: Draft Sequence
      133. You have free access to this content
        Immunoglobulin Gene Construction: Human
      134. Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements
      135. Immunoglobulin Genes
      136. Imprinting (Mammals)
      137. Integrase Class Site-specific Recombinases
      138. Intragenomic Conflict
      139. Intron Homing
      140. Intronless Genes
      141. Introns: Group I Structure and Function
      142. Kilobase Pair (kbp)
      143. L Isochore Map: Gene-poor Isochores
      144. Ligation: Theory and Practice
      145. Linkage and Crossing over
      146. Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs)
      147. Macromolecular Interactions: Aptamers
      148. Magnetic Tweezers
      149. Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes (MACs)
      150. Matrix-associated Regions (MARs) and Scaffold Attachment Regions (SARs)
      151. Mechanism of Single-Stranded DNA Transposition: A Structural Perspective
      152. You have free access to this content
        Mechanisms of X-inactivation
      153. Megabase Pair (Mbp)
      154. Megasatellite DNA
      155. Meiosis
      156. Meiotic Recombination Pathways
      157. The Meselson–Stahl Experiment
      158. Methylated DNA-binding Proteins
      159. Microarrays: Use in Gene Identification
      160. Microdeletions and Microduplications: Mechanism
      161. Microsatellite Instability
      162. Microsatellites
      163. Minigenes
      164. Minisatellites
      165. Mitochondrial DNA and Diseases
      166. Mitochondrial Genome
      167. Mitosis: Chromosomal Rearrangements
      168. You have free access to this content
        Molecular Biology: The Central Dogma
      169. Mutagenesis
      170. Mutagenesis Mechanisms
      171. Mutagenesis: Site-Specific
      172. Mutation Rate of Non-CpG DNA
      173. Mutations and the Genetic Code
      174. Negative Regulatory Elements (NREs)
      175. Neurospora Genetics
      176. Non-B DNA Structure and Mutations Causing Human Genetic Disease
      177. Nonprotein-coding Genes
      178. Nuclear Receptor Genes
      179. Nucleases
      180. Nucleic Acid Backbone Structure Variations: Peptide Nucleic Acids
      181. You have free access to this content
        Nucleic Acids as Genetic Material
      182. Nucleic Acids: General Properties
      183. Nucleic Acids: Hybridisation
      184. Nucleic Acids: Subtractive Hybridization
      185. Nucleic Acids: Thermal Stability and Denaturation
      186. Nucleolus: Structure and Function
      187. Nucleosomes: Detailed Structure and Mutations
      188. Nucleosomes: Structure and Function
      189. Nucleotides: Structure and Properties
      190. Nucleotides: Uncommon, Modified and Synthetic
      191. Olfactory Receptors
      192. You have free access to this content
        Oncogenes
      193. Oxidative Phosphorylation System: Nuclear Genes and Genetic Disease
      194. Paramutation in Plants
      195. Plant Centromeres
      196. Plant Nuclear Genome Composition
      197. Plasmids
      198. Polyploidy
      199. You have free access to this content
        Polytene Chromosomes
      200. Position Effect Variegation in Human Genetic Disease
      201. Primary Protein and Nucleic Acid Three-dimensional Structure Databases
      202. Primer Walking
      203. Prokaryotic DNA-binding Proteins
      204. Prokaryotic Replication Origins: Structure and Function in the Initiation of DNA Replication
      205. Promoter Haplotypes and Gene Expression
      206. Promoters
      207. Protein Coding
      208. Protein Domain Fusion
      209. Protein-Coding Segments: Evolution of Exon–Intron Gene Structure
      210. Protein–DNA Complexes: Nonspecific
      211. Protein–DNA Complexes: Specific
      212. Protein–DNA Interactions: Polyelectrolyte Effects
      213. Protein–DNA Interactions: Structure and Energetics
      214. Protein–Nucleic Acid Interaction: Major Groove Recognition Determinants
      215. Pseudoautosomal Inheritance
      216. Pseudogenes and Their Evolution
      217. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis
      218. Rad51 and Eukaryotic Recombination Proteins
      219. RecA Protein
      220. RecBCD Helicase/Nuclease
      221. Repetitive DNA: Evolution
      222. Repetitive Elements: Bioinformatic Identification, Classification and Analysis
      223. Repression Mechanism
      224. Restriction Enzymes
      225. Retrotransposons and Human Disease
      226. Retroviral Repeat Sequences
      227. Retroviruses in Human Gene Therapy
      228. RNA Gene Prediction
      229. RNA–DNA Molecules
      230. The Role of Insulators in Genome Organization and Gene Expression
      231. Sequence Accuracy and Verification
      232. Sequence Finishing
      233. Sequence Finishing on New Platforms
      234. Short DNA Sequence Repeats
      235. Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs)
      236. Shotgunning the Human Genome: A Personal View
      237. Simple Repeats
      238. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
      239. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs): Identification and Scoring
      240. Single-stranded DNA-binding Proteins
      241. Site-specific Recombination
      242. Site-specific Recombination in Chromosome Function
      243. Site-specific Recombination: Uses in Biotechnology
      244. Small-molecule Inhibitors of DNA Base Excision Repair
      245. Somatic Hypermutation in Antibody Evolution
      246. Splice Sites
      247. Synchronous and Asynchronous Replication
      248. Systems Biology: Genomics Aspects
      249. Telomerase: Structure and Function
      250. Telomere
      251. Telomere Dysfunction in Human Genetic Disease
      252. Telomeres
      253. Telomeres in Cell Function: Cancer and Ageing
      254. Telomeres: Protection and Maintenance
      255. Telomeric and Subtelomeric Repeat Sequences
      256. Termination of Replication in Bacteria
      257. The Gene Content of Mammalian and Avian Sex Chromosomes
      258. Tissue-specific Locus Control: Structure and Function
      259. Topoisomerases
      260. Transcription Activation at Bacterial Promoters
      261. Transcription Factors
      262. Transposases and Integrases
      263. Transposons
      264. Transposons as Natural and Experimental Mutagens
      265. Transposons: Eukaryotic
      266. Two-hybrid and Related Systems
      267. Universal Genetic Code and its Natural Variations
      268. Watson–Crick Base Pairs and Nucleic Acids Stability
      269. X and Y Chromosomes: Homologous Regions
      270. X-Chromosome Inactivation
      271. X-chromosome Inactivation
      272. Y Chromosome
      273. Y-chromosome-linked Traits
      274. Zinc-finger Genes
      275. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated Transformation of Plant Cells
      276. Alternative Promoter Usage
      277. Apolipoprotein Gene Structure and Function
      278. Bacillus subtilis as a Model for Bacterial Systems Biology
      279. Bacterial DNA Polymerase I
      280. Bacterial Primosome
      281. Bacterial Replication Fork: Synthesis of Lagging Strand
      282. You have free access to this content
        Bacterial Transcription Regulation
      283. Base Composition Patterns
      284. Base Flipping
      285. Base Pairing in DNA: Unusual Patterns
      286. Basepair (bp)
      287. Blocks of Limited Haplotype Diversity
      288. Caenorhabditis elegans Genome Project
      289. Cancer Cytogenetics
      290. Cell Death in C. elegans
      291. Centromeres
      292. Centromeres
      293. Centromeric Sequences and Sequence Structures
      294. Checkpoints in the Cell Cycle
      295. Chromatin Diminution
      296. Chromatin Structure and Domains
      297. Chromatin Structure and Modification: Defects
      298. Chromosomal Bands and Sequence Features
      299. Chromosomal Genetic Disease: Structural Aberrations
      300. Chromosome 22: Sequencing
      301. Chromosome Condensation and Cohesion
      302. Chromosome Function: Sex Differences
      303. Chromosome Mechanics
      304. You have free access to this content
        Chromosome Preparation and Banding
      305. You have free access to this content
        Chromosome Structure
      306. Chromosome X
      307. You have free access to this content
        Chromosome X: General Features
      308. Chromosome Y
      309. Chromosome-specific Repeats (Low-copy Repeats)
      310. Chromosomes and Chromatin
      311. Chromosomes: Noncoding DNA (Including Satellite DNA)
      312. Chromosomes: Nonhistone Proteins
      313. Clustering of Highly Expressed Genes in the Human Genome
      314. Comparative Chromosome Mapping: Rodent Models
      315. Comparative Cytogenetics Technologies
      316. Comparing the Human and Fish Genomes
      317. Contig Assembly
      318. Cot Analysis: Single-copy versus Repetitive DNA
      319. CpG Islands and DNA Methylation
      320. Cre–lox-Inducible Gene Targeting
      321. Crystallisation of Nucleic Acids
      322. Developmentally Programmed DNA Rearrangements
      323. DNA Chemical Instability
      324. DNA Chip Revolution
      325. DNA Cloning
      326. DNA Coiling and Unwinding
      327. DNA Looping and Transcription Regulation
      328. DNA Mechanics and Statistical Mechanics
      329. DNA Methylation
      330. DNA Methylation and Histone Acetylation
      331. DNA Methylation and Mutation
      332. DNA Methylation: Enzymology
      333. DNA Packaging in Sperm
      334. DNA Polymerase Fidelity Mechanisms
      335. DNA Polymerases: Eukaryotic
      336. You have free access to this content
        DNA Profiling in Forensic Science
      337. You have free access to this content
        DNA Replication
      338. You have free access to this content
        DNA Replication Fidelity
      339. DNA Replication Origins
      340. DNA Replication: Mammalian
      341. DNA Replication: Prokaryotes and Yeast
      342. DNA Sequencing
      343. DNA Structure
      344. DNA Structure Changes Coupled to Protein Binding
      345. DNA Structure: A-, B- and Z-DNA Helix Families
      346. DNA Structure: Sequence Effects
      347. DNA Topology: Fundamentals
      348. DNA Topology: Supercoiling and Linking
      349. DNA Transposition: Classes and Mechanisms
      350. DNA: Mechanical Breakage
      351. DNA: Methods for Preparation
      352. DNA/RNA Flexibility
      353. Electrophoresis and Blotting of DNA
      354. Enhancers
      355. Environmental Carcinogens and Mutagens
      356. You have free access to this content
        Escherichia coli Lactose Operon
      357. Eukaryotic Chromosomes
      358. Eukaryotic DNA Polymerases
      359. Eukaryotic Recombination: Initiation by Double-strand Breaks
      360. Eukaryotic Replication Fork
      361. Eukaryotic Replication Origins and Initiation of DNA Replication
      362. Eukaryotic Replication Protein A
      363. Evolution of Human Retrosequences: Alu
      364. Evolution of Microsatellite DNA
      365. Exonic Splicing Enhancers
      366. Exonucleases
      367. Expression Studies
      368. Fragile Sites
      369. Functional Constraint and Molecular Evolution
      370. Gene Conversion
      371. Gene Distribution in Human Chromosomes
      372. Gene Duplication and Redundancy
      373. Gene Expression in Yeast
      374. Gene Families
      375. You have free access to this content
        Gene Silencing in Development (Drosophila)
      376. You have free access to this content
        Gene Structure and Organization
      377. Gene Synthesis for Protein Production
      378. Gene Targeting by Homologous Recombination
      379. Genes: Definition and Structure
      380. Genes: Types
      381. Genetic and Physical Map Correlation
      382. Genetic Code: Introduction
      383. Genetic Engineering: Reporter Genes
      384. Genetic Mapping: Comparison of Direct and Indirect Approaches
      385. Genetic Maps: Direct Meiotic Analysis
      386. Genetic Maps: Integration
      387. Genetic Networks
      388. Genome Databases
      389. Genome Organization of Vertebrates
      390. Genome Sequence Analysis
      391. Genome Size
      392. Genomic DNA: Purification
      393. Genomics, Pharmacogenetics and Proteomics: An Integration
      394. Hidden Markov Models
      395. Histidine Triad (HIT) Superfamily
      396. Histone Acetylation: Long-range Patterns in the Genome
      397. Histones
      398. Histones: Gene Organisation and Post-translational Modification
      399. HMG Domain Superfamily of DNA-bending Proteins: HMG, UBF, TCF, LEF, SOX, SRY and Related Proteins
      400. Homologous DNA Interactions in Interphase: Spatial Organization of Interphase Nucleus
      401. Homologous Genetic Recombination during Bacterial Conjugation
      402. Homologous Genetic Recombination in Eukaryotes
      403. Human Chromosome Evolution
      404. Human Chromosomes
      405. Human Genome Variation Society
      406. Human Genome: Draft Sequence
      407. You have free access to this content
        Immunoglobulin Gene Construction: Human
      408. Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements
      409. Immunoglobulin Genes
      410. Imprinting (Mammals)
      411. Integrase Class Site-specific Recombinases
      412. Intragenomic Conflict
      413. Intron Homing
      414. Intronless Genes
      415. Introns: Group I Structure and Function
      416. Kilobase Pair (kbp)
      417. L Isochore Map: Gene-poor Isochores
      418. Ligation: Theory and Practice
      419. Linkage and Crossing over
      420. Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs)
      421. Macromolecular Interactions: Aptamers
      422. Magnetic Tweezers
      423. Mammalian Artificial Chromosomes (MACs)
      424. Matrix-associated Regions (MARs) and Scaffold Attachment Regions (SARs)
      425. Mechanism of Single-Stranded DNA Transposition: A Structural Perspective
      426. You have free access to this content
        Mechanisms of X-inactivation
      427. Megabase Pair (Mbp)
      428. Megasatellite DNA
      429. Meiosis
      430. Meiotic Recombination Pathways
      431. The Meselson–Stahl Experiment
      432. Methylated DNA-binding Proteins
      433. Microarrays: Use in Gene Identification
      434. Microdeletions and Microduplications: Mechanism
      435. Microsatellite Instability
      436. Microsatellites
      437. Minigenes
      438. Minisatellites
      439. Mitochondrial DNA and Diseases
      440. Mitochondrial Genome
      441. Mitosis: Chromosomal Rearrangements
      442. You have free access to this content
        Molecular Biology: The Central Dogma
      443. Mutagenesis
      444. Mutagenesis Mechanisms
      445. Mutagenesis: Site-Specific
      446. Mutation Rate of Non-CpG DNA
      447. Mutations and the Genetic Code
      448. Negative Regulatory Elements (NREs)
      449. Neurospora Genetics
      450. Non-B DNA Structure and Mutations Causing Human Genetic Disease
      451. Nonprotein-coding Genes
      452. Nuclear Receptor Genes
      453. Nucleases
      454. Nucleic Acid Backbone Structure Variations: Peptide Nucleic Acids
      455. You have free access to this content
        Nucleic Acids as Genetic Material
      456. Nucleic Acids: General Properties
      457. Nucleic Acids: Hybridisation
      458. Nucleic Acids: Subtractive Hybridization
      459. Nucleic Acids: Thermal Stability and Denaturation
      460. Nucleolus: Structure and Function
      461. Nucleosomes: Detailed Structure and Mutations
      462. Nucleosomes: Structure and Function
      463. Nucleotides: Structure and Properties
      464. Nucleotides: Uncommon, Modified and Synthetic
      465. Olfactory Receptors
      466. You have free access to this content
        Oncogenes
      467. Oxidative Phosphorylation System: Nuclear Genes and Genetic Disease
      468. Paramutation in Plants
      469. Plant Centromeres
      470. Plant Nuclear Genome Composition
      471. Plasmids
      472. Polyploidy
      473. You have free access to this content
        Polytene Chromosomes
      474. Position Effect Variegation in Human Genetic Disease
      475. Primary Protein and Nucleic Acid Three-dimensional Structure Databases
      476. Primer Walking
      477. Prokaryotic DNA-binding Proteins
      478. Prokaryotic Replication Origins: Structure and Function in the Initiation of DNA Replication
      479. Promoter Haplotypes and Gene Expression
      480. Promoters
      481. Protein Coding
      482. Protein Domain Fusion
      483. Protein-Coding Segments: Evolution of Exon–Intron Gene Structure
      484. Protein–DNA Complexes: Nonspecific
      485. Protein–DNA Complexes: Specific
      486. Protein–DNA Interactions: Polyelectrolyte Effects
      487. Protein–DNA Interactions: Structure and Energetics
      488. Protein–Nucleic Acid Interaction: Major Groove Recognition Determinants
      489. Pseudoautosomal Inheritance
      490. Pseudogenes and Their Evolution
      491. Pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis
      492. Rad51 and Eukaryotic Recombination Proteins
      493. RecA Protein
      494. RecBCD Helicase/Nuclease
      495. Repetitive DNA: Evolution
      496. Repetitive Elements: Bioinformatic Identification, Classification and Analysis
      497. Repression Mechanism
      498. Restriction Enzymes
      499. Retrotransposons and Human Disease
      500. Retroviral Repeat Sequences
      501. Retroviruses in Human Gene Therapy
      502. RNA Gene Prediction
      503. RNA–DNA Molecules
      504. The Role of Insulators in Genome Organization and Gene Expression
      505. Sequence Accuracy and Verification
      506. Sequence Finishing
      507. Sequence Finishing on New Platforms
      508. Short DNA Sequence Repeats
      509. Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs)
      510. Shotgunning the Human Genome: A Personal View
      511. Simple Repeats
      512. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
      513. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs): Identification and Scoring
      514. Single-stranded DNA-binding Proteins
      515. Site-specific Recombination
      516. Site-specific Recombination in Chromosome Function
      517. Site-specific Recombination: Uses in Biotechnology
      518. Small-molecule Inhibitors of DNA Base Excision Repair
      519. Somatic Hypermutation in Antibody Evolution
      520. Splice Sites
      521. Synchronous and Asynchronous Replication
      522. Systems Biology: Genomics Aspects
      523. Telomerase: Structure and Function
      524. Telomere
      525. Telomere Dysfunction in Human Genetic Disease
      526. Telomeres
      527. Telomeres in Cell Function: Cancer and Ageing
      528. Telomeres: Protection and Maintenance
      529. Telomeric and Subtelomeric Repeat Sequences
      530. Termination of Replication in Bacteria
      531. The Gene Content of Mammalian and Avian Sex Chromosomes
      532. Tissue-specific Locus Control: Structure and Function
      533. Topoisomerases
      534. Transcription Activation at Bacterial Promoters
      535. Transcription Factors
      536. Transposases and Integrases
      537. Transposons
      538. Transposons as Natural and Experimental Mutagens
      539. Transposons: Eukaryotic
      540. Two-hybrid and Related Systems
      541. Universal Genetic Code and its Natural Variations
      542. Watson–Crick Base Pairs and Nucleic Acids Stability
      543. X and Y Chromosomes: Homologous Regions
      544. X-Chromosome Inactivation
      545. X-chromosome Inactivation
      546. Y Chromosome
      547. Y-chromosome-linked Traits
      548. Zinc-finger Genes
    5. Evolution of Coding and Functional Modules
    6. General Molecular Biology
    7. Genetic Code
    8. Mechanisms of Cell Death, Senescence and Metabolism
    9. Nonchromosomal DNA
    10. Noncoding RNA
    11. Posttranscriptional Modification
    12. Posttranslational Modification
    13. Protein Degradation
    14. RNA Structure and Function
    15. Techniques and Tools in Molecular Biology
    16. Transcription
    17. Transcription of DNA
    18. Transcriptional Regulation
    19. Translation of RNA
    20. Translational Regulation
  11. Neuroscience
  12. Plant Science
  13. Science & Society
  14. Structural Biology
  15. Virology

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