eLS

eLS

Online ISBN: 9780470015902

DOI: 10.1002/047001590X

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  1. Biochemistry
  2. Bioethics & Philosophy
  3. Cell Biology
  4. Developmental Biology
  5. Ecology
  6. Evolution & Diversity of Life
    1. Adaptive Evolution
    2. Classification
    3. Coevolution
    4. Diversification of Plants and Animals
    5. Diversity of Life
    6. Evolution of Novelty
    7. Evolution of Species
    8. Evolution Rates
    9. Evolution: Theories and Ideas
    10. Evolutionary Genomics
    11. Evolutionary Processes
    12. Extinction and Radiation
    13. Fossils and Evolution
    14. Geology: Earth Changes Over Time
    15. Human Evolution
    16. Macroevolution
    17. Molecular Evolution
      1. Adaptive Evolution of Centromeric Proteins
      2. Adaptive Gene Loss in Vertebrates: Photosensitivity as a Model Case
      3. Aerobic Methanotrophy and Nitrification: Processes and Connections
      4. Allele-specific mRNA Splicing in Human
      5. Alternative Polyadenylation in the Human Genome: Evolution
      6. Alternative Splicing in the Human Genome and its Evolutionary Consequences
      7. Alternative Splicing: Evolution
      8. Ancient DNA: Recovery and Analysis
      9. You have free access to this content
        Antibiotics and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance
      10. ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Supergene Family: Genetics and Evolution
      11. You have free access to this content
        Avirulence Genes
      12. Bacterial DNA in the Human Genome
      13. Base Composition Patterns
      14. Biased Gene Conversion and Its Impact on Genome Evolution
      15. Bidirectional Gene Pairs in the Human Genome
      16. The Biological Significance of Conserved Nongenic DNA
      17. Birth and Evolution of Human Exons
      18. Cerebral Cortex Evolution and the ASPM Gene
      19. Chance and Necessity: Emerging Introns in Intronless Retrogenes
      20. The Chimpanzee Genome Project
      21. Chromatin Structure and Human Genome Evolution
      22. Chromosomal Rearrangements in Primates
      23. Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Human and Chimpanzee Lineages
      24. Chromosome Numbers in Mammals
      25. Chromosome Rearrangement Patterns in Mammalian Evolution
      26. Chromosomes in Mammals: Diversity and Evolution
      27. Codon Usage
      28. Codon Usage in Molecular Evolution
      29. Coevolution: Molecular
      30. Comparative Analysis of miRNA-mediated Gene Regulation in Mammals
      31. Comparative Chromosome Mapping: Rodent Models
      32. Comparative Cytogenetics
      33. Comparative Cytogenetics Technologies
      34. Comparative Genetics of Trinucleotide Repeats in the Human and Ape Genomes
      35. Comparative Genomics of the Major Chemosensory Gene Families in Arthropods
      36. Comparing the Human and Canine Genomes
      37. Comparing the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes
      38. Comparing the Human and Sea Urchin Genomes
      39. Compensatory Evolution in Disease-Associated Genes
      40. Complement System: Evolution
      41. The Complexity of Genetic Redundancy
      42. Concerted Evolution
      43. The Contribution of Transposable Elements to Human Proteins
      44. Copy Number Variation in the Human Genome
      45. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Sequences: Comparative Analysis
      46. Deciphering the Evolution of the Mitochondrial Genetic Code in Arthropods
      47. Defensins: Evolution
      48. Diet, Changes in Gene Expression and Human Evolution
      49. Divergence between the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes and its Impact on Protein and Transcriptome Evolution
      50. DNA Markers and Human Evolution
      51. DNA Methylation: Evolution
      52. DNA Repair: Evolution
      53. DNA Sequence Analysis
      54. Domain Duplication and Gene Elongation
      55. Dosage Compensation Mechanisms: Evolution
      56. Drift: Theoretical Aspects
      57. Drug Metabolism: Evolution
      58. Dual-Coding Regions in Alternatively Spliced Human Genes
      59. Endogenous Retroviral Sequences; Their Evolutionary Contribution to the Human Genome
      60. Epigenetic Variation in Humans
      61. Evolution of Adaptive Immunity
      62. Evolution of Alpha-Satellite DNA
      63. Evolution of C2H2 Zinc-finger Gene Families in Mammals
      64. Evolution of Caspase-1 Inhibitors
      65. The Evolution of Centromeric DNA Sequences
      66. Evolution of Common Fragile Sites
      67. Evolution of Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases
      68. Evolution of Gene Deserts in the Human Genome
      69. Evolution of Gene Expression in Human and Chimpanzee Brains
      70. Evolution of Genome Organization
      71. Evolution of Human Gene Expression Control
      72. Evolution of Human Retrosequences: Alu
      73. Evolution of Imprinting: Imprinted Gene Function in Human Disease
      74. The Evolution of Introns in Human Genes
      75. Evolution of Microsatellite DNA
      76. Evolution of Microsatellites
      77. Evolution of Notch Transmembrane Receptors
      78. Evolution of Nuclear Receptor Pseudogenes
      79. Evolution of Photosynthesis
      80. Evolution of Plant Homeobox Genes
      81. Evolution of Plant MicroRNAs
      82. Evolution of Protein Domains
      83. Evolution of Secondary Plant Metabolism
      84. Evolution of Sex Chromosomes in Plants
      85. Evolution of the AZFc Region in Primates
      86. Evolution of the Chorionic Gonadotropin β Genes in Primates
      87. Evolution of the Genetic Code
      88. Evolution of the Hox Gene Cluster
      89. Evolution of the Human Immune System
      90. Evolution of the Interferon Regulatory Factor Family
      91. Evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex: Insights from Characterisation of Marsupial Genes
      92. Evolution of the Mammalian X Chromosome
      93. Evolution of the Metazoan Extracellular Matrix
      94. Evolution of the p53 and p63/p73 Gene Families
      95. Evolution of Traits Deduced from Genome Comparisons
      96. Evolution of Transcription Factors in Caenorhabditis
      97. Evolution of Uric Acid Metabolism in Humans
      98. Evolution of Vault RNAs
      99. Evolution of Visual Performance-associated Genes in Drosophila
      100. Evolution of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
      101. Evolution of X-Chromosome Inactivation
      102. Evolution of X-Linked Male-Biased Genes in Drosophila
      103. Evolution: Neutralist View
      104. Evolutionarily Conserved Intronic Splicing Regulatory Elements in the Human Genome
      105. Evolutionarily Conserved Noncoding DNA
      106. Evolutionary Conservation of Splice Sites
      107. Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Developmental and Genetic Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
      108. Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Gene Duplication, Divergence and Co-option
      109. Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Homologous Regulatory Genes and Processes
      110. Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Hox Gene Evolution
      111. Evolutionary Distance
      112. Evolutionary Distance: Estimation
      113. Evolutionary Emergence of Genes Through Retrotransposition
      114. An Evolutionary Genetic Framework for Heritable Disorders
      115. Evolutionary History and Impact of Human DNA Transposons
      116. Evolutionary History of the Proviruses HERV-K 113 and HERV-K 115
      117. Evolutionary Origin of Orphan Genes
      118. Exons and Protein Modules
      119. Exons: Shuffling
      120. Experimental Evolution in Viruses
      121. Eye Development: Gene Control
      122. Fibroblast Growth Factors: Evolution
      123. Fifteen Years of Evolutionary Genomics in Caenorhabditis elegans
      124. Fugu: A Compact Model Vertebrate Genome
      125. Functional Constraint and Molecular Evolution
      126. G+C Content Evolution in the Human Genome
      127. Gene Clustering in Eukaryotes
      128. Gene Conversion During Primate Evolution
      129. Gene Conversion in Evolution and Disease
      130. Gene Deletions in Evolution
      131. Gene Duplication: Evolution
      132. Gene Families: Formation and Evolution
      133. Gene Families: Multigene Families and Superfamilies
      134. Gene Flow, Haplotype Patterns and Modern Human Origins
      135. Gene Fusion
      136. Gene Structure: Evolution
      137. Gene Trees and Species Trees
      138. Genetic Analysis of Hybrid Incompatibilities in Drosophila
      139. Genetic Code: Evolution
      140. Genetic Conflict and Imprinting
      141. Genetics of Adaptation to High Altitude
      142. Genome Evolution in Yeasts
      143. Genome Evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi
      144. Genome Evolution: Overview
      145. Genomic Studies of Adaptation in Natural Populations
      146. Geological Time: Dating Techniques
      147. Globin Genes: Evolution
      148. Gross Insertions and Microinsertions in Evolution
      149. Heritability
      150. Hidden Markov Models
      151. Hominids: Molecular Phylogenetics
      152. Homologous, Orthologous and Paralogous Genes
      153. Horizontal Gene Transfer in Evolution
      154. Hotspots of Mammalian Chromosome Evolution
      155. Human and Chimpanzee Nucleotide Diversity
      156. Human and Chimpanzee Transcriptomes: Comparative Evolution
      157. Human and Macaque Transcriptomes: A Comparison
      158. Human Endogenous Retroviruses; Evolutionary Dynamics, Chromosomal Location and Host Benefit
      159. Human Genetic Diversity
      160. Human Intronless Genes and their Associated Diseases
      161. Human Lineage-Specific Gene Inactivation
      162. You have free access to this content
        Human Relationships Inferred from Genetic Variation
      163. Human Transcriptome Evolution
      164. Human-specific Accelerated Evolution of Noncoding Sequences
      165. Identifying Regions of the Human Genome that Exhibit Evidence of Positive Selection
      166. The Impact of Gene Duplication on Human Genome Evolution
      167. Imprinting: Evolution
      168. Indels in the Evolution of the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes
      169. Insertion and Deletion of Exons during Human Gene Evolution
      170. Intragenomic Conflict
      171. Intron Loss and Gain
      172. Introns Evolution in Duplicated Human Genes
      173. Introns: Movements
      174. Introns: Phase Compatibility
      175. Isochores
      176. Karyotype Evolution
      177. Lifelines Beyond the Genome: Why Chickens Come Before Eggs
      178. Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs): Evolution
      179. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) Family: Genetics and Evolution
      180. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
      181. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Genes: Evolution
      182. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Genes: Polymorphism
      183. Male-driven Evolution
      184. Mammalian Embryo: Hox Genes
      185. Mammalian Sex Chromosome Evolution
      186. Mammalian Sex Determination
      187. Mechanism of Single-Stranded DNA Transposition: A Structural Perspective
      188. Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation
      189. Methodologies for Phylogenetic Inference
      190. Microbial Evolution
      191. Microevolution and Macroevolution: Introduction
      192. MicroRNA Evolution in the Human Genome
      193. Microsatellites in Historic and Ancient DNA
      194. Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms
      195. Mitochondrial Genome Evolution
      196. Mitochondrial Genome: Evolution
      197. Mitochondrial Non-Mendelian Inheritance: Evolutionary Origin and Consequences
      198. Mitochondrial Origins of Human Nuclear Genes and DNA Sequences
      199. Mitochondrial Proteome: Origin
      200. Molecular Clock: Testing
      201. Molecular Clocks
      202. Molecular Clocks
      203. Molecular Evolution
      204. Molecular Evolution of Genes Involved in Vertebrate Sex Determination
      205. Molecular Evolution of Glycophorins
      206. Molecular Evolution of The Keratin-associated Protein Gene Family
      207. Molecular Evolution: Introduction
      208. Molecular Evolution: Nearly Neutral Theory
      209. Molecular Evolution: Neutral Theory
      210. Molecular Evolution: Patterns and Rates
      211. Molecular Evolution: Rates
      212. Molecular Evolution: Techniques
      213. Molecular Palaeontology
      214. Molecular Phylogeny Reconstruction
      215. The Mouse Genome as a Rodent Model in Evolutionary Studies
      216. Multigene Families: Evolution
      217. Mutation Rate of Non-CpG DNA
      218. Mutation Rate: Sex Biases
      219. Mutation Rates: Evolution
      220. Mutation–Selection Balance
      221. Mutation, Selection and Genetic Interactions in Bacteria
      222. Mutational Biases
      223. Mutational Change in Evolution
      224. Mutations and New Variation: Overview
      225. Myosins
      226. Neural Networks
      227. Neuropeptides and their Receptors: Evolution
      228. Neutrality and Selection in Molecular Evolution: Statistical Tests
      229. You have free access to this content
        Nuclear Receptor Genes: Evolution
      230. Nuclear Sequences of Mitochondrial Origin as Phylogenetic Markers
      231. Nucleotide Sequence Divergence between Humans and Chimpanzees
      232. Nucleotide Substitution: Rate of
      233. Olfactory Receptor Genes: Evolution
      234. On Sequence Variants that Influence the Risk of Common Diseases
      235. Origin of Modern Humans: Interpreting the Molecular Evidence
      236. Origin of Bilaterian Hox Patterning System
      237. Orthologues, Paralogues and Horizontal Gene Transfer in the Human Holobiont
      238. Photorespiration
      239. Phylogenetic Footprinting
      240. Phylogeny Reconstruction
      241. Plant Synteny, Colinearity and Genome Evolution
      242. Polyploid Origin of the Human Genome
      243. Polyploidy and Paralogous Chromosome Regions
      244. Population Genetics: Multilocus
      245. Positive Selection and Alternative Splicing in Humans
      246. Prebiotic Chemistry
      247. Predicting Molecular Evolutionary Trajectories in Principle and in Practice
      248. Primate Evolution: Gene Loss and Inactivation
      249. Processed Pseudogenes and Their Functional Resurrection in the Human and Mouse Genomes
      250. Prokaryotic Systematics: Theoretical Overview in the Light of Molecular Advances
      251. Promoters: Evolution
      252. Proteases: Evolution
      253. Protein Coding
      254. Protein Families: Evolution
      255. Protein-Coding Segments: Evolution of Exon–Intron Gene Structure
      256. Pseudoexons
      257. Pseudogene Evolution in the Human Genome
      258. Pseudogenes and Their Evolution
      259. Pseudogenes: Age
      260. Pseudogenes: Patterns of Mutation
      261. Purifying Selection: Action on Silent Sites
      262. Quantitative Genetics
      263. Rapid Evolution of Genes on the Human X Chromosome
      264. The Rat Genome as a Rodent Model in Evolutionary Studies
      265. Recombination and Human Genetic Diversity
      266. Reconstructing Ancient DNA Sequences in Silico
      267. Reconstructing Human History Using Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial Markers
      268. Reconstruction of the Ancestral Xenarthran Karyotype
      269. Regulatory Genes in Ancestral Chordates
      270. Relationships of Birds – Molecules versus Morphology
      271. Relevance of Pseudogenes to Human Genetic Disease
      272. Repetitive DNA: Evolution
      273. RNA Editing: Evolutionary Implications
      274. RNA Viruses: Control, Mutagenesis and Extinction
      275. rRNA Genes: Evolution
      276. Segmental Duplications: A Source of Diversity, Evolution and Disease
      277. Selection against Amino Acid Replacements in Human Proteins
      278. Selection and Complex Multigene Traits
      279. Selective and Structural Constraints
      280. Semantides and Modern Bacterial Systematics
      281. Sequence Alignment
      282. Sequence Similarity
      283. Serpins: Evolution
      284. Simple Sequence Repeats in the Human Genome: Evolution
      285. Single-base Mutation
      286. Somatic Hypermutation of Antigen Receptor Genes: Evolution
      287. Speciation Genes
      288. Spectrum of Point Mutations in the Human Genome and Major Subpopulations
      289. Structural Diversity of the Human Genome and Disease Susceptibility
      290. Structure, Function and Evolution of The Nematode Genome
      291. Substitution Matrices
      292. Subtelomeres: Evolution in the Human Genome
      293. Synonymous and Nonsynonymous Rates
      294. Synonymous Mutations as a Cause of Human Genetic Disease
      295. Tandem Repeat Instability and Genome Evolution
      296. The Contribution of Frameshift Translation to the Generation of Novel Human Proteins
      297. Transcription Factor-binding Sites: Recent Evolution in the Human Lineage
      298. Transcriptional Regulation: Evolution
      299. Transposable Element-driven Duplications during Hominoid Genome Evolution
      300. Transposable Elements: Evolution
      301. Trypsin-like Serine Proteases and the Evolution of Hematophagy in Mosquitoes
      302. Trypsinogen Genes: Insights into Molecular Evolution from the Study of Pathogenic Mutations
      303. Ultraconserved Elements (UCEs) in the Human Genome
      304. Vertebrate Immune System: Evolution
      305. Virus Evolution
      306. Visual Pigment Genes: Evolution
      307. Y Chromosome Evolution
    18. Origin of Life
    19. Population Structure and Genetics
    20. Protein Evolution
    21. Reconstruction of Phylogeny
    22. Selection and Variation
    23. Variation by Mutation and Recombination
  7. Genetics & Disease
  8. Immunology
  9. Microbiology
  10. Molecular Biology
  11. Neuroscience
  12. Plant Science
  13. Science & Society
  14. Structural Biology
  15. Virology

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