eLS

eLS

Online ISBN: 9780470015902

DOI: 10.1002/047001590X

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  1. Biochemistry
  2. Bioethics & Philosophy
  3. Cell Biology
  4. Developmental Biology
  5. Ecology
  6. Evolution & Diversity of Life
    1. Adaptive Evolution
    2. Classification
    3. Coevolution
    4. Diversification of Plants and Animals
    5. Diversity of Life
    6. Evolution of Novelty
    7. Evolution of Species
    8. Evolution Rates
    9. Evolution: Theories and Ideas
    10. Evolutionary Genomics
    11. Evolutionary Processes
    12. Extinction and Radiation
    13. Fossils and Evolution
    14. Geology: Earth Changes Over Time
    15. Human Evolution
    16. Macroevolution
    17. Molecular Evolution
      1. Adaptive Evolution of Centromeric Proteins
      2. Adaptive Gene Loss in Vertebrates: Photosensitivity as a Model Case
      3. Aerobic Methanotrophy and Nitrification: Processes and Connections
      4. Allele-specific mRNA Splicing in Human
      5. Alternative Polyadenylation in the Human Genome: Evolution
      6. Alternative Splicing and Genome Evolution
      7. Alternative Splicing in the Human Genome and its Evolutionary Consequences
      8. Alternative Splicing: Evolution
      9. Ancient DNA: Recovery and Analysis
      10. You have free access to this content
        Antibiotics and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance
      11. ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Supergene Family: Genetics and Evolution
      12. You have free access to this content
        Avirulence Genes
      13. Bacterial DNA in the Human Genome
      14. Base Composition Patterns
      15. Biased Gene Conversion and Its Impact on Genome Evolution
      16. Bidirectional Gene Pairs in the Human Genome
      17. The Biological Significance of Conserved Nongenic DNA
      18. Birth and Evolution of Human Exons
      19. Cerebral Cortex Evolution and the ASPM Gene
      20. Chance and Necessity: Emerging Introns in Intronless Retrogenes
      21. The Chimpanzee Genome Project
      22. Chromatin Structure and Human Genome Evolution
      23. Chromosomal Rearrangements in the Human and Chimpanzee Lineages
      24. Chromosome Numbers in Mammals
      25. Chromosome Rearrangement Patterns in Mammalian Evolution
      26. Chromosomes in Mammals: Diversity and Evolution
      27. Codon Usage
      28. Codon Usage in Molecular Evolution
      29. Coevolution: Molecular
      30. Comparative Analysis of miRNA-mediated Gene Regulation in Mammals
      31. Comparative Chromosome Mapping: Rodent Models
      32. Comparative Cytogenetics Technologies
      33. Comparative Genetics of Trinucleotide Repeats in the Human and Ape Genomes
      34. Comparative Genomics of the Major Chemosensory Gene Families in Arthropods
      35. Comparing the Human and Canine Genomes
      36. Comparing the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes
      37. Comparing the Human and Sea Urchin Genomes
      38. Compensatory Evolution in Disease-Associated Genes
      39. Complement System: Evolution
      40. The Complexity of Genetic Redundancy
      41. Concerted Evolution
      42. The Contribution of Transposable Elements to Human Proteins
      43. Copy Number Variation in the Human Genome
      44. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Sequences: Comparative Analysis
      45. Deciphering the Evolution of the Mitochondrial Genetic Code in Arthropods
      46. Defensins: Evolution
      47. Diet, Changes in Gene Expression and Human Evolution
      48. Divergence between the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes and its Impact on Protein and Transcriptome Evolution
      49. DNA Markers and Human Evolution
      50. DNA Methylation: Evolution
      51. DNA Repair: Evolution
      52. DNA Sequence Analysis
      53. Domain Duplication and Gene Elongation
      54. Dosage Compensation Mechanisms: Evolution
      55. Drift: Theoretical Aspects
      56. Drug Metabolism: Evolution
      57. Dual-Coding Regions in Alternatively Spliced Human Genes
      58. Endogenous Retroviral Sequences; Their Evolutionary Contribution to the Human Genome
      59. Epigenetic Variation in Humans
      60. Evolution of Adaptive Immunity
      61. Evolution of Alpha-Satellite DNA
      62. Evolution of C2H2 Zinc-finger Gene Families in Mammals
      63. Evolution of Caspase-1 Inhibitors
      64. The Evolution of Centromeric DNA Sequences
      65. Evolution of Common Fragile Sites
      66. Evolution of Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases
      67. Evolution of Gene Deserts in the Human Genome
      68. Evolution of Gene Expression in Human and Chimpanzee Brains
      69. Evolution of Genome Organization
      70. Evolution of Human Gene Expression Control
      71. Evolution of Human Retrosequences: Alu
      72. Evolution of Imprinting: Imprinted Gene Function in Human Disease
      73. The Evolution of Introns in Human Genes
      74. Evolution of Microsatellite DNA
      75. Evolution of Microsatellites
      76. Evolution of Notch Transmembrane Receptors
      77. Evolution of Nuclear Receptor Pseudogenes
      78. Evolution of Plant Homeobox Genes
      79. Evolution of Plant MicroRNAs
      80. Evolution of Protein Domains
      81. Evolution of Secondary Plant Metabolism
      82. Evolution of Sex Chromosomes in Plants
      83. Evolution of the AZFc Region in Primates
      84. Evolution of the Chorionic Gonadotropin β Genes in Primates
      85. Evolution of the Genetic Code
      86. Evolution of the Growth Hormone Receptor Family
      87. Evolution of the Hox Gene Cluster
      88. Evolution of the Human Immune System
      89. Evolution of the Interferon Regulatory Factor Family
      90. Evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex: Insights from Characterisation of Marsupial Genes
      91. Evolution of the Mammalian X Chromosome
      92. Evolution of the Metazoan Extracellular Matrix
      93. Evolution of the p53 and p63/p73 Gene Families
      94. Evolution of Traits Deduced from Genome Comparisons
      95. Evolution of Transcription Factors in Caenorhabditis
      96. Evolution of Uric Acid Metabolism in Humans
      97. Evolution of Vault RNAs
      98. Evolution of Visual Performance-associated Genes in Drosophila
      99. Evolution of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
      100. Evolution of X-Chromosome Inactivation
      101. Evolution of X-Linked Male-Biased Genes in Drosophila
      102. Evolution: Neutralist View
      103. Evolutionarily Conserved Intronic Splicing Regulatory Elements in the Human Genome
      104. Evolutionarily Conserved Noncoding DNA
      105. Evolutionary Conservation of Splice Sites
      106. Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Developmental and Genetic Mechanisms of Evolutionary Change
      107. Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Gene Duplication, Divergence and Co-option
      108. Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Homologous Regulatory Genes and Processes
      109. Evolutionary Developmental Biology: Hox Gene Evolution
      110. Evolutionary Distance
      111. Evolutionary Distance: Estimation
      112. Evolutionary Emergence of Genes Through Retrotransposition
      113. An Evolutionary Genetic Framework for Heritable Disorders
      114. Evolutionary History and Impact of Human DNA Transposons
      115. Evolutionary History of the Proviruses HERV-K 113 and HERV-K 115
      116. Evolutionary Origin of MicroRNAs
      117. Evolutionary Origin of Orphan Genes
      118. Exons and Protein Modules
      119. Exons: Shuffling
      120. Experimental Evolution in Viruses
      121. Eye Development: Gene Control
      122. Fibroblast Growth Factors: Evolution
      123. Fifteen Years of Evolutionary Genomics in Caenorhabditis elegans
      124. Fugu: A Compact Model Vertebrate Genome
      125. Functional Constraint and Molecular Evolution
      126. G+C Content Evolution in the Human Genome
      127. Gene Clustering in Eukaryotes
      128. Gene Conversion During Primate Evolution
      129. Gene Conversion in Evolution and Disease
      130. Gene Copy-Number Changes in Evolution
      131. Gene Deletions in Evolution
      132. Gene Duplication: Evolution
      133. Gene Families: Formation and Evolution
      134. Gene Families: Multigene Families and Superfamilies
      135. Gene Flow, Haplotype Patterns and Modern Human Origins
      136. Gene Fusion
      137. Gene Structure: Evolution
      138. Gene Trees and Species Trees
      139. Genetic Code: Evolution
      140. Genetic Conflict and Imprinting
      141. Genetics of Adaptation to High Altitude
      142. Genome Evolution in Plants
      143. Genome Evolution in Yeasts
      144. Genome Evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi
      145. Genome Evolution: Overview
      146. Genomic Studies of Adaptation in Natural Populations
      147. Geological Time: Dating Techniques
      148. Globin Genes: Evolution
      149. Gross Insertions and Microinsertions in Evolution
      150. Heritability
      151. Hidden Markov Models
      152. Hominids: Molecular Phylogenetics
      153. Homologous, Orthologous and Paralogous Genes
      154. Horizontal Gene Transfer in Evolution
      155. Hotspots of Mammalian Chromosome Evolution
      156. Human and Chimpanzee Nucleotide Diversity
      157. Human and Chimpanzee Transcriptomes: Comparative Evolution
      158. Human and Macaque Transcriptomes: A Comparison
      159. Human Endogenous Retroviruses; Evolutionary Dynamics, Chromosomal Location and Host Benefit
      160. Human Genetic Diversity
      161. Human Intronless Genes and their Associated Diseases
      162. Human Lineage-Specific Gene Inactivation
      163. You have free access to this content
        Human Relationships Inferred from Genetic Variation
      164. Human Transcriptome Evolution
      165. Human-specific Accelerated Evolution of Noncoding Sequences
      166. Hybrid Incompatibility in Drosophila: An Updated Genetic and Evolutionary Analysis
      167. Identifying Regions of the Human Genome that Exhibit Evidence of Positive Selection
      168. The Impact of Gene Duplication on Human Genome Evolution
      169. Imprinting: Evolution
      170. Indels in the Evolution of the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes
      171. Insertion and Deletion of Exons during Human Gene Evolution
      172. Intragenomic Conflict
      173. Intron Loss and Gain
      174. Introns Evolution in Duplicated Human Genes
      175. Introns: Movements
      176. Introns: Phase Compatibility
      177. Inversions and Evolution of the Human Genome
      178. Isochores
      179. Karyotype Evolution
      180. Lifelines Beyond the Genome: Why Chickens Come Before Eggs
      181. Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs): Evolution
      182. Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) Family: Genetics and Evolution
      183. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
      184. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Genes: Evolution
      185. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Genes: Polymorphism
      186. Male-driven Evolution
      187. Mammalian Embryo: Hox Genes
      188. Mammalian Sex Chromosome Evolution
      189. Mammalian Sex Determination
      190. Mechanism of Single-Stranded DNA Transposition: A Structural Perspective
      191. Meiotic Sex Chromosome Inactivation
      192. Methodologies for Phylogenetic Inference
      193. Microbial Evolution
      194. Microevolution and Macroevolution: Introduction
      195. MicroRNA Evolution in the Human Genome
      196. Microsatellites in Historic and Ancient DNA
      197. Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms
      198. Mitochondrial Genome Evolution
      199. Mitochondrial Genome: Evolution
      200. Mitochondrial Non-Mendelian Inheritance: Evolutionary Origin and Consequences
      201. Mitochondrial Origins of Human Nuclear Genes and DNA Sequences
      202. Mitochondrial Proteome: Origin
      203. Molecular Clock: Testing
      204. Molecular Clocks
      205. Molecular Clocks
      206. Molecular Evolution
      207. Molecular Evolution of Genes Involved in Vertebrate Sex Determination
      208. Molecular Evolution of Glycophorins
      209. Molecular Evolution of The Keratin-associated Protein Gene Family
      210. Molecular Evolution: Introduction
      211. Molecular Evolution: Nearly Neutral Theory
      212. Molecular Evolution: Neutral Theory
      213. Molecular Evolution: Patterns and Rates
      214. Molecular Evolution: Rates
      215. Molecular Evolution: Techniques
      216. Molecular Palaeontology
      217. Molecular Phylogeny Reconstruction
      218. The Mouse Genome as a Rodent Model in Evolutionary Studies
      219. Multigene Families: Evolution
      220. Mutation Rate of Non-CpG DNA
      221. Mutation Rate: Sex Biases
      222. Mutation Rates: Evolution
      223. Mutation–Selection Balance
      224. Mutation, Selection and Genetic Interactions in Bacteria
      225. Mutational Biases
      226. Mutational Change in Evolution
      227. Mutations and New Variation: Overview
      228. Myosins
      229. Neural Networks
      230. Neuropeptides and their Receptors: Evolution
      231. Neutrality and Selection in Molecular Evolution: Statistical Tests
      232. You have free access to this content
        Nuclear Receptor Genes: Evolution
      233. Nuclear Sequences of Mitochondrial Origin as Phylogenetic Markers
      234. Nucleotide Sequence Divergence between Humans and Chimpanzees
      235. Nucleotide Substitution: Rate of
      236. Olfactory Receptor Genes: Evolution
      237. On Sequence Variants that Influence the Risk of Common Diseases
      238. Origin of Modern Humans: Interpreting the Molecular Evidence
      239. Orthologues, Paralogues and Horizontal Gene Transfer in the Human Holobiont
      240. Photorespiration
      241. Phylogenetic Footprinting
      242. Phylogeny Reconstruction
      243. Plant Synteny, Colinearity and Genome Evolution
      244. Plant Transposable Elements
      245. Polyploid Origin of the Human Genome
      246. Polyploidy and Paralogous Chromosome Regions
      247. Population Genetics: Multilocus
      248. Positive Selection and Alternative Splicing in Humans
      249. Prebiotic Chemistry
      250. Predicting Molecular Evolutionary Trajectories in Principle and in Practice
      251. Primate Evolution: Gene Loss and Inactivation
      252. Processed Pseudogenes and Their Functional Resurrection in the Human and Mouse Genomes
      253. Prokaryotic Systematics: Theoretical Overview in the Light of Molecular Advances
      254. Promoters: Evolution
      255. Proteases: Evolution
      256. Protein Coding
      257. Protein Families: Evolution
      258. Protein-Coding Segments: Evolution of Exon–Intron Gene Structure
      259. Pseudoexons
      260. Pseudogene Evolution in the Human Genome
      261. Pseudogenes and Their Evolution
      262. Pseudogenes: Age
      263. Pseudogenes: Patterns of Mutation
      264. Purifying Selection: Action on Silent Sites
      265. Quantitative Genetics
      266. Rapid Evolution of Genes on the Human X Chromosome
      267. The Rat Genome as a Rodent Model in Evolutionary Studies
      268. Recombination and Human Genetic Diversity
      269. Reconstructing Ancient DNA Sequences in Silico
      270. Reconstruction of the Ancestral Xenarthran Karyotype
      271. Regulatory Genes in Ancestral Chordates
      272. Relationships of Birds – Molecules versus Morphology
      273. Relevance of Pseudogenes to Human Genetic Disease
      274. Repetitive DNA: Evolution
      275. RNA Editing: Evolutionary Implications
      276. RNA Viruses: Control, Mutagenesis and Extinction
      277. Role of Endogenous Retroviruses in Human Genetic Diseases
      278. rRNA Genes: Evolution
      279. Salmonella Genomes in the Context of Lifestyle
      280. Segmental Duplications: A Source of Diversity, Evolution and Disease
      281. Selection against Amino Acid Replacements in Human Proteins
      282. Selection and Complex Multigene Traits
      283. Selective and Structural Constraints
      284. Semantides and Modern Bacterial Systematics
      285. Sequence Alignment
      286. Sequence Similarity
      287. Serpins: Evolution
      288. Simple Repeats
      289. Simple Sequence Repeats in the Human Genome: Evolution
      290. Single-base Mutation
      291. Somatic Hypermutation of Antigen Receptor Genes: Evolution
      292. Speciation Genes
      293. Spectrum of Point Mutations in the Human Genome and Major Subpopulations
      294. Structural Diversity of the Human Genome and Disease Susceptibility
      295. Structure, Function and Evolution of The Nematode Genome
      296. Substitution Matrices
      297. Subtelomeres: Evolution in the Human Genome
      298. Synonymous and Nonsynonymous Rates
      299. Synonymous Mutations as a Cause of Human Genetic Disease
      300. Tandem Repeat Instability and Genome Evolution
      301. The Contribution of Frameshift Translation to the Generation of Novel Human Proteins
      302. Transcription Factor-binding Sites: Recent Evolution in the Human Lineage
      303. Transcriptional Regulation: Evolution
      304. Transposable Element-driven Duplications during Hominoid Genome Evolution
      305. Transposable Elements: Evolution
      306. Transposons in Eukaryotes (Part B): Genomic Consequences of Transposition
      307. Trypsin-like Serine Proteases and the Evolution of Hematophagy in Mosquitoes
      308. Trypsinogen Genes: Insights into Molecular Evolution from the Study of Pathogenic Mutations
      309. Ultraconserved Elements (UCEs) in the Human Genome
      310. Vertebrate Immune System: Evolution
      311. Virus Evolution
      312. Visual Pigment Genes: Evolution
      313. Y Chromosome Evolution
    18. Origin of Life
    19. Population Structure and Genetics
    20. Protein Evolution
    21. Reconstruction of Phylogeny
    22. Selection and Variation
    23. Variation by Mutation and Recombination
  7. Genetics & Disease
  8. Immunology
  9. Microbiology
  10. Molecular Biology
  11. Neuroscience
  12. Plant Science
  13. Science & Society
  14. Structural Biology
  15. Virology

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