Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences

Online ISBN: 9780470848944

DOI: 10.1002/0470848944

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  1. Part 1 Theory, Organization and Scale
    1. 1 On the Fundamentals of Hydrological Sciences
    2. 2 The Hydrologic Cycles and Global Circulation
    3. 3 Hydrologic Concepts of Variability and Scale
    4. 4 Organization and Process
    5. 5 Fundamental Hydrologic Equations
    6. 6 Principles of Hydrological Measurements
    7. 7 Methods of Analyzing Variability
    8. 8 Fractals and Similarity Approaches in Hydrology
    9. 9 Statistical Upscaling and Downscaling in Hydrology
    10. 10 Concepts of Hydrologic Modeling
    11. 11 Upscaling and Downscaling – Dynamic Models
    12. 12 Co-Evolution of Climate, Soil and Vegetation
    13. 13 Pattern, Process and Function: Elements of a Unified Theory of Hydrology at the Catchment Scale
    14. Ecohydrological Optimality
    15. Catchment Classification and Services—Toward a New Paradigm for Catchment Hydrology Driven by Societal Needs
  2. Part 2 Hydroinformatics
    1. 14 Hydroinformatics and its Contributions to Hydrology: From Computation to Communication
    2. 15 Digital Elevation Model Analysis and Geographic Information Systems
    3. 16 Numerical Flood Simulation
    4. 17 Hydrological and Environmental Modeling of Transport Processes in Rivers and Estuaries
    5. 18 Shallow Water Models with Porosity for Urban Flood Modeling
    6. 19 Data-Driven Modeling and Computational Intelligence Methods in Hydrology
    7. 20 Artificial Neural Network Concepts in Hydrology
    8. 21 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling Based on Genetic Programming
    9. 22 Evolutionary Computing in Hydrological Sciences
    10. 23 Flood Early Warning Systems for Hydrological (Sub) Catchments
    11. 24 Network Distributed Decision Support Systems and the Role of Hydrological Knowledge
  3. Part 3 Meteorology and Climatology
    1. 25 Global Energy and Water Balances
    2. 26 Weather Patterns and Weather Types
    3. 27 Storm Systems
    4. 28 Clouds and Precipitation
    5. 29 Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Climates and Interactions with the Land Surface
    6. 30 Topographic Effects on Precipitation
    7. 31 Models of Clouds, Precipitation and Storms
    8. 32 Models of Global and Regional Climate
    9. 33 Human Impacts on Weather and Climate
    10. Tropical Cyclone Rainfall
    11. 34 Climate Change – Past, Present and Future
  4. Part 4 Hydrometeorology
    1. 35 Rainfall Measurement: Gauges
    2. 36 Precipitation Measurement: Gauge Deployment
    3. 37 Rainfall Trend Analysis: Return Period
    4. 38 Fog as a Hydrologic Input
    5. 39 Surface Radiation Balance
    6. 40 Evaporation Measurement
    7. 41 Evaporation Modeling: Potential
    8. 42 Transpiration
    9. 43 Evaporation of Intercepted Rainfall
    10. 44 Evaporation from Lakes
    11. 45 Actual Evaporation
  5. Part 5 Remote Sensing
    1. 46 Principles of Radiative Transfer
    2. 47 Sensor Principles and Remote Sensing Techniques
    3. 48 Ground-Based and Airborne Lidar
    4. 49 Estimation of Surface Insolation
    5. 50 Estimation of the Surface Energy Balance
    6. 51 Spatially Resolved Measurements of Evapotranspiration by Lidar
    7. 52 Estimation of Surface Temperature and Surface Emissivity
    8. 53 Estimation of Surface Freeze–Thaw States Using Microwave Sensors
    9. 54 Estimation of Surface Soil Moisture Using Microwave Sensors
    10. 55 Estimation of Snow Extent and Snow Properties
    11. 56 Estimation of Glaciers and Sea-Ice Extent and their Properties
    12. 57 Land-Cover Classification and Change Detection
    13. 58 Characterizing Forest Canopy Structure and Ground Topography Using Lidar
    14. 59 Estimation of Soil Properties Using Hyperspectral VIS/IR Sensors
    15. 60 Estimation of River and Water-Body Stage, Width and Gradients Using Radar Altimetry, Interferometric SAR and Laser Altimetry
    16. 61 Estimation of River Discharge
    17. 62 Estimation of Suspended Sediment and Algae in Water Bodies
    18. 63 Estimation of Precipitation Using Ground-Based, Active Microwave Sensors
    19. 64 Satellite-Based Estimation of Precipitation Using Microwave Sensors
    20. 65 Estimation of Water Vapor and Clouds Using Microwave Sensors
  6. Part 6 Soils
    1. 66 Soil Water Flow at Different Spatial Scales
    2. 67 Hydrology of Swelling Clay Soils
    3. 68 Water Movement in Hydrophobic Soils
    4. 69 Solute Transport in Soil at the Core and Field Scale
    5. 70 Transpiration and Root Water Uptake
    6. 71 Freezing and Thawing Phenomena in Soils
    7. 72 Measuring Soil Water Content
    8. 73 Soil Water Potential Measurement
    9. 74 Soil Hydraulic Properties
    10. 75 Determining Soil Hydraulic Properties
    11. 76 Models for Indirect Estimation of Soil Hydraulic Properties
    12. 77 Inverse Modeling of Soil Hydraulic Properties
    13. 78 Models of Water Flow and Solute Transport in the Unsaturated Zone
    14. 79 Assessing Uncertainty Propagation through Physically Based Models of Soil Water Flow and Solute Transport
  7. Part 7 Erosion and Sedimentation
    1. 80 Erosion and Sediment Transport by Water on Hillslopes
    2. 81 Erosion Monitoring
    3. 82 Erosion Prediction and Modeling
    4. 83 Suspended Sediment Transport – Flocculation and Particle Characteristics
    5. 84 Floodplain Sedimentation – Methods, Patterns, and Processes: A Review with Examples from the Lower Rhine, the Netherlands
    6. 85 Sediment Yields and Sediment Budgets
    7. 86 Measuring Sediment Loads, Yields, and Source Tracing
    8. 87 Sediment Yield Prediction and Modeling
    9. 88 Reservoir Sedimentation
    10. 89 On the Worldwide Riverine Transport of Sediment – Associated Contaminants to the Ocean
    11. 90 Lake Sediments as Records of Past Catchment Response
    12. Contaminated Sediments: Inorganic Constituents
  8. Part 8 Water Quality and Biogeochemistry
    1. 91 Water Quality
    2. 92 Water Quality Monitoring
    3. 93 Effects of Human Activities on Water Quality
    4. 94 Point and NonPoint Source Pollution
    5. 95 Acidic Deposition: Sources and Effects
    6. 96 Nutrient Cycling
    7. 97 Urban Water Quality
    8. 98 Pathogens
    9. 99 Salinization
    10. 100 Water Quality Modeling
  9. Part 9 Ecological and Hydrological Interactions
    1. 101 Ecosystem Processes
    2. 102 Trophic Dynamics
    3. 103 Terrestrial Ecosystems
    4. 104 Satellite-Based Analysis of Ecological Controls for Land-Surface Evaporation Resistance
    5. 105 Microbial Transport in the Subsurface
    6. 106 Groundwater Microbial Communities
    7. 107 Natural and Constructed Wetlands
    8. 108 Lake Ecosystems (Stratification and Seasonal Mixing Processes, Pelagic and Benthic Coupling)
    9. 109 Reservoirs
    10. 110 Paleolimnology and Paleohydrology
  10. Part 10 Rainfall-Runoff Processes
    1. 111 Rainfall Excess Overland Flow
    2. 112 Subsurface Stormflow
    3. 113 Hyporheic Exchange Flows
    4. 114 Snowmelt Runoff Generation
    5. 115 Landscape Element Contributions to Storm Runoff
    6. 116 Isotope Hydrograph Separation of Runoff Sources
    7. 117 Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Runoff Processes: Urban and Suburban Development
    8. 118 Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Runoff Processes: Agricultural Effects
    9. 119 Land Use and Landcover Effects on Runoff Processes: Forest Harvesting and Road Construction
    10. 120 Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Runoff Processes: Fire
    11. 121 Intersite Comparisons of Rainfall-Runoff Processes
    12. Hydropedology and Surface/Subsurface Runoff Processes
  11. Part 11 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling
    1. 122 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling: Introduction
    2. 123 Rainfall-Runoff Models for Real-Time Forecasting
    3. 124 Flood Routing and Inundation Prediction
    4. 125 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling for Flood Frequency Estimation
    5. 126 Modeling Recession Curves and Low Streamflows
    6. 127 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling: Distributed Models
    7. 128 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling: Transfer Function Models
    8. 129 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling for Integrated Basin Management
    9. 130 Fuzzy Sets in Rainfall/Runoff Modeling
    10. 131 Model Calibration and Uncertainty Estimation
    11. 132 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling for Assessing Impacts of Climate and Land Use Change
    12. 133 Rainfall-Runoff Modeling of Ungauged Catchments
    13. 134 Downward Approach to Hydrological Model Development
  12. Part 12 Open-Channel Flow
    1. 135 Open Channel Flow – Introduction
    2. 136 Hydrodynamic Considerations
    3. 137 Uniform Flow
    4. 138 Unsteady Flow
    5. 139 Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Flows in Rivers
    6. 140 Transport of Sediments
    7. 141 Computer Modeling of Overbank Flows
    8. 142 Debris Flow
    9. 143 Mountain Streams
    10. 144 Regulated Lowland Rivers
  13. Part 13 Groundwater
    1. 145 Groundwater as an Element in the Hydrological Cycle
    2. 146 Aquifer Recharge
    3. 147 Characterization of Porous and Fractured Media
    4. 148 Aquifer Characterization by Geophysical Methods
    5. 149 Hydrodynamics of Groundwater
    6. 150 Unsaturated Zone Flow Processes
    7. 151 Hydraulics of Wells and Well Testing
    8. 152 Modeling Solute Transport Phenomena
    9. 153 Groundwater Pollution and Remediation
    10. 154 Stochastic Modeling of Flow and Transport in Porous and Fractured Media
    11. 155 Numerical Models of Groundwater Flow and Transport
    12. 156 Inverse Methods for Parameter Estimations
    13. 157 Sea Water Intrusion into Coastal Aquifers
    14. 158 Anthropogenic Land Subsidence
    15. Sustainable Groundwater Management
    16. Consolidation of Soils
    17. Riverbank Filtration for Drinking Water Supply
    18. Groundwater Monitoring Strategies
    19. Groundwater Protection
    20. Geospatial Information in Hydrogeological Studies
  14. Part 14 Snow and Glacier Hydrology
    1. 159 Snow Cover
    2. 160 Energy Balance and Thermophysical Processes in Snowpacks
    3. 161 Water Flow through Snow and Firn
    4. 162 Hydrology of Snowcovered Basins
    5. 163 Hydrochemical Processes in Snow-Covered Basins
    6. 164 Role of Glaciers and Ice Sheets in Climate and the Global Water Cycle
    7. 165 Mass and Energy Balances of Glaciers and Ice Sheets
    8. 166 Surface and Englacial Drainage of Glaciers and Ice Sheets
    9. 167 Subglacial Drainage
    10. 168 Hydrology of Glacierized Basins
    11. 169 Sediment and Solute Transport in Glacial Meltwater Streams
    12. 170 Modeling Glacier Hydrology
    13. 171 River-Ice Hydrology
    14. 172 Permafrost Hydrology
  15. Part 15 Global Hydrology
    1. 173 Global Water Cycle (Fundamental, Theory, Mechanisms)
    2. 174 Global Water Budgets – Fundamental Theory and Mechanisms
    3. 175 Observations of the Global Water Cycle – Global Monitoring Networks
    4. 176 Observations of the Global Water Cycle – Satellites
    5. 177 The Role of Large-Scale Field Experiments in Water and Energy Balance Studies
    6. 178 Modeling of the Global Water Cycle: Numerical Models (General Circulation Models)
    7. 179 Modeling of the Global Water Cycle – Analytical Models
    8. 180 Short-Term Predictions (Weather Forecasting Purposes)
    9. 181 Long-Term Predictions (Climate Simulation and Analysis)
    10. 182 The Hydrological Cycle in Atmospheric Reanalysis
    11. 183 Teleconnections in the Earth System
    12. 184 Global River Carbon Biogeochemistry
  16. Part 16 Land Use and Water Management
    1. 185 Integrated Land and Water Resources Management
    2. 186 Water and Forests
    3. 187 Land Use Impacts on Water Resources – Science, Social and Political Factors
    4. 188 Land Use and Water Quality
    5. 189 Land Use and Water Resources under a Changing Climate
    6. 190 Hydromorphological Quality – A Policy Template for Channel Design in River Restoration
    7. 191 Environmental Flows: Managing Hydrological Environments
    8. 192 Public Participation in River Basin Planning and Management: Quality-of-Life Capital as an Information Aid to Sustainable Decisions
    9. 193 Markets for Watershed Services
    10. 194 Inter-Institutional Links in Land and Water Management
  17. Part 17 Climate Change
    1. 195 Acceleration of the Global Hydrologic Cycle
    2. Detectable Trends in Hydroclimatical Variables During the Twentieth Century
    3. 196 The Role of Water Vapor and Clouds in the Climate System
    4. 197 Observed Trends in Hydrologic Cycle Components
    5. 198 Role and Importance of Cryospheric Processes in Climate System
    6. 199 Role and Importance of Paleohydrology in the Study of Climate Change and Variability
    7. 200 Changes in Regional Hydroclimatology and Water Resources on Seasonal to Interannual and Decade-to-Century Timescales
    8. The Impact of Climate Change and Variability on Heavy Precipitation, Floods, and Droughts
    9. 201 Land-Atmosphere Models for Water and Energy Cycle Studies
    10. 202 Use of Climate Information in Water Resources Management
    11. 203 A Guide to International Hydrologic Science Programs
  18. Software
    1. ArcView/ArcInfo/ArcGIS
    2. A Collection of Software Tools Related to Automatic Differentiation
    3. Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS)
    4. CE-QUAL-ICM
    5. CE-QUAL-R1
    6. CE-QUAL-RIV1
    7. CE-QUAL-W2
    8. CFEST
    9. CHAIN-2D
    10. Corpscon
    11. CoupModel
    12. Delft3D
    13. DELFT-FEWS
    14. ECJ
    15. EdiRe
    16. EFDC
    17. evd
    18. EVIS
    19. Evolving Objects (EO)
    20. FAST
    21. FEFLOW
    22. The Genetic Algorithm Optimizing Toolbox (GAOT)
    23. Genetic Programming Related FAQ, Books and Algorithms
    24. GenStat
    25. GISHydro2000
    26. Global Water Cycle and World Water Resources Database
    27. Globus Toolkit
    28. GPKernel
    29. GPLAB
    30. Groundwater Modeling System (GMS)
    31. HEC-RAS
    32. Hillvi
    33. HSPF
    34. HST3D
    35. Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA)
    36. ISIS Flow
    37. Matlab Neural Network Toolbox
    38. MIKE 11
    39. MIKE SHE
    40. MOC3D
    41. Model Viewer
    42. MODFLOW
    43. MODFLOW-GUI
    44. MODFLOW SURFACT
    45. MODPATH
    46. MT3D
    47. MT3D99
    48. MT3D-MS
    49. NCAR CCM2
    50. Neural Machine
    51. Neurosolutions
    52. OTIS - (One-Dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage: A Solute Transport Model for Streams and Rivers)
    53. PATH3D
    54. PEST
    55. PHREEQC (PHREEQE)
    56. Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM)
    57. Processing MODFLOW Pro (PMWIN)
    58. Porflow
    59. Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)
    60. QUAL2E
    61. QUAL2K
    62. River Analysis Package (RAP)
    63. ROCKFLOW
    64. RT3D
    65. Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA)
    66. SEAM3D
    67. SHAW Model
    68. SHDOM
    69. SHETRAN
    70. Simple Biosphere Model (SiB)
    71. SOBEK
    72. S-PLUS
    73. Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS)
    74. Surface Water Modeling System (SMS)
    75. SUTRA
    76. SWIFT
    77. TBC
    78. TELEMAC
    79. TRIVAST
    80. UCODE
    81. University of Arizona/CLIMAS Forecast Evaluation Tool
    82. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Cold Land Process Model
    83. Visual MODFLOW
    84. Visual MODFLOW Pro
    85. Visual PEST-ASP
    86. WASP

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