Characterization of Materials

Characterization of Materials

Online ISBN: 9780471266969

DOI: 10.1002/0471266965

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  1. Foreword
  2. Preface
  3. Common Concepts
    1. Common Concepts in Materials Characterization, Introduction
    2. General Vacuum Techniques
    3. Mass and Density Measurements
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      Porosity and Its Measurement
    5. Thermometry
    6. Symmetry in Crystallography
    7. Sample Preparation For Metallography
    8. Atomic Excitation Exploited By Energetic-Beam Characterization Methods
    9. Particle Scattering
    10. Combining Data from Multiple Techniques
  4. Computation and Theoretical Methods
    1. Computation and Theoretical Methods, Introduction
    2. Introduction to Computation
    3. Bonding in Metals
    4. Summary of Electronic Structure Methods
    5. Magnetism In Alloys
    6. Multiscale Computational Characterization
    7. Handling Time and Temperature in Materials Simulations
    8. Prediction of Phase Diagrams
    9. Simulating Microstructural Evolution using the Phase Field Method
    10. Challenges to Structure Prediction and Structure Characterization at the Nanoscale
    11. Molecular-Dynamics Simulation of Surface Phenomena
    12. Binary and Multicomponent Diffusion
    13. Simulation of Chemical Vapor Deposition Processes
    14. Kinematic Diffraction of X-Rays
    15. Dynamical Diffraction
    16. Computation of Diffuse Intensities in Alloys
  5. Mechanical Testing
    1. Mechanical Testing, Introduction
    2. Tension Testing
    3. High-Strain-Rate Testing of Materials: The Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar
    4. Fracture Toughness Testing Methods
    5. Hardness Testing
    6. Tribological and Wear Testing
    7. Characterizing Micro and Nanomaterials Using MEMS Technology
  6. Thermal Analysis
    1. Thermal Analysis, Introduction
    2. Principles and Practices of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
    3. Thermogravimetric Analysis
    4. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis
    5. Combustion Calorimetry
    6. Thermal Diffusivity by The Laser Flash Technique
    7. Simultaneous Techniques Including Analysis of Gaseous Products
    8. High-Temperature Drop Calorimetry
    9. Semiadiabatic (Isoperibol) Solution Calorimetry
  7. Electrical and Electronic Measurement
    1. Electrical and Electronic Measurements, Introduction
    2. Conductivity Measurement
    3. Hall Effect and Conductivity Measurements in Semiconductor Crystals and Thin Films
    4. Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) Characterization of Semiconductors
    5. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy
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      Impedance Spectroscopy of Dielectrics and Electronic Conductors
    7. Electrical Measurements on Superconductors by Transport
    8. Measuring the Electronic Properties of Materials at the Nanoscale
    9. Characterization of pn Junctions
    10. Carrier Lifetime: Free Carrier Absorption, Photoconductivity, and Photoluminescence
  8. Magnetism and Magnetic Measurement
    1. Magnetism and Magnetic Measurement, Introduction
    2. Generation and Measurement of Magnetic Fields
    3. Magnetic Moment and Magnetization
    4. Theory of Magnetic Phase Transitions
    5. Magnetometry
    6. Thermomagnetic Analysis
    7. Techniques to Measure Magnetic Domain Structures
    8. Magnetotransport in Metals and Alloys
    9. Surface Magneto-Optic Kerr Effect
    10. Magneto-Optical Characterization of Magnetic Thin Films, Surfaces, and Interfaces at Small Length and Short Timescales
    11. Magnetization Characterization of Superconductors
  9. Electrochemical Techniques
    1. Electrochemical Techniques, Introduction
    2. Cyclic Voltammetry
    3. Techniques for Corrosion Quantification
    4. Semiconductor Photoelectrochemistry
    5. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
    6. Potentiostatic and Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Techniques
    7. Microelectrodes
    8. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
    9. The Quartz Crystal Microbalance in Electrochemistry
  10. Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy
    1. Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy, Introduction
    2. Optical Microscopy
    3. Reflected-Light Optical Microscopy
    4. Super-Resolution Optical Microscopy
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      Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy
    6. Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy
    7. Raman Spectroscopy of Solids
    8. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy
    9. Ellipsometry
    10. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    11. Photoluminescence Spectroscopy
    12. Dynamic Light Scattering
    13. Impulsive Stimulated Thermal Scattering
  11. Resonance Methods
    1. Resonance Methods, Introduction
    2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    3. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance
    4. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
    5. Cyclotron Resonance
    6. Mössbauer Spectrometry
    7. NMR Spectroscopy in the Solid State
    8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Basic Principles and Liquid State Spectroscopy
    9. Applications of Ferromagnetic Resonance
  12. X-Ray Techniques
    1. X-Ray Techniques, Introduction
    2. X-Ray Powder Diffraction
    3. Pair Distribution Functions Analysis
    4. Single-Crystal X-ray Structure Determination
    5. X-Ray Diffraction and Spectroscopic Techniques for Liquid Surfaces and Interfaces
    6. Surface X-Ray Diffraction
    7. Coherent Diffraction Imaging of Strain on the Nanoscale
    8. X-ray and Neutron Diffuse Scattering Measurements
    9. XAFS Spectroscopy
    10. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    11. X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism
    12. Resonant Scattering Techniques
    13. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering
    14. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering
    15. X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis
    16. X-Ray Computed Tomography
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      High-Resolution 3D Imaging and Material Analysis with Transmission X-ray Microscopy and Nano-CT
    18. In situ X-ray Measurement Methods
  13. Electron Techniques
    1. Electron Techniques, Introduction
    2. Transmission Electron Microscopy
    3. Scanning Electron Microscopy
    4. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy: Z-Contrast Imaging
    5. In Situ TEM Measurement Methods
    6. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy
    7. Lorentz Microscopy
    8. Fluctuation Electron Microscopy
    9. Low-Energy Electron Microscopy
    10. Spin-Polarized Low-Energy Electron Microscopy (SPLEEM)
    11. Low-Energy Electron Diffraction
    12. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry
    13. Auger Electron Spectroscopy
    14. Positron Annihilation Studies of Materials
    15. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction
  14. Ion-Beam Techniques
    1. Ion Beam Methods, Introduction
    2. “Total” Ion Beam Analysis—3D Imaging of Complex Samples Using MeV Ion Beams
    3. Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission
    4. Elastic Backscattering of Ions for Compositional Analysis
    5. Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis
    6. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Particle-Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE)
    7. Low-Energy Ion Scattering
    8. Medium-Energy Backscattering and Forward-Recoil Spectrometry
    9. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
    10. Scanning Helium Ion Microscopy
    11. Atom Probe Tomography and Field Ion Microscopy
    12. Charged-Particle Irradiation for Neutron Radiation Damage Studies
    13. Radiation Effects Microscopy
    14. Trace Element Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
    15. Introduction To Medium-Energy Ion Beam Analysis
    16. Heavy-Ion Backscattering Spectrometry
  15. Neutron Techniques
    1. Neutron Techniques, Introduction
    2. Neutron Powder Diffraction
    3. Single-Crystal Neutron Diffraction
    4. Phonon Studies
    5. Neutron Reflectometry*
    6. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering
    7. Magnetic Neutron Scattering
  16. Scanning Probe Techniques
    1. Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques, Introduction
    2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
    3. Magnetic Sensitive Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
    4. Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy
    5. Magnetic Sensitive Scanning Probe Microscopy
    6. Electrostatic Force Microscopy And Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy
    7. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy
    8. Scanning Thermal Microscopy
    9. Ultrasonic Atomic Force Microscopy