Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Online ISBN: 9783527600434

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434

What's New

In December 2016, the following articles were updated or added:

·         Advanced Superconducting Circuits and Devices

·         Flux Pinning in Superconductors

·         Magnetic Shields

·         Magnets for NMR and MRI

·         Magnets for Particle Accelerators and Colliders

·         Proximity Effect

·         Quantum Standards for Voltage

·         Review on Superconducting Materials

·         SQUID-Based Thermometers

·         Superconducting Mixed-Signal Circuits

·         Superconducting Photon Detectors

·         Superconducting Pickup Coils for NMR and MRI Applications

In July 2016, the following articles were updated or added:

·        AC Losses and Numerical Modeling of Superconductors

·         Applications at Terahertz Frequency

·         Basic Properties and Parameters of Superconductors

·         Bulk Superconducting Magnets for Bearings and Levitation

·         Cavities for Accelerators

·         Detector Readout

·         Digital Processing

·         Digital SQUIDs

·         Fundamentals of Superconducting Magnets

·         High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Leads

·         Josephson Arrays as Radiation Sources (incl. Josephson Laser)

·         Logic Circuits

·         Magnetic Levitation and Transportation

·         Quantum Computing

·         Radiation and Particle Detectors

·         Radio Frequency Amplifiers Based on DC SQUIDs

·         Single Cooper Pair Circuits and Quantum Metrology

·         SIS Mixers

·         SQUID-Based Cryogenic Current Comparators

·         Superconducting Detector Magnets for Particle Physics

·         Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometers and Transition Edge Sensors

·         Superconducting Magnets for Fusion

·         Superconducting Microwave Components

·         Tunable Microwave Devices

·         Tunneling and Superconductivity

In December 2015, the following articles were updated or added:

·        Cryocoolers

·         “Cryogen-Free” Cooling

·         Cuprate High-Temperature Superconductors

·         Energy Storage (SMES and Flywheels)

·         Fault Current Limiters

·         Fluid Cooling

·         Geophysical Exploration

·         HTS Josephson Junctions

·         Iron-Based Superconductors: Aspects for Applications

·         LTS Josephson Junctions and Circuits

·         Magnesium Diboride

·         Metals, Alloys, and Intermetallic Compounds

·         Practical Design of High-Temperature Superconducting Current Leads

·         Preparation of Bulk and Textured Superconductors

·         Properties of Bulk Materials

·         Rotating Machines

·         Scanning SQUID Microscopy

·         Single Crystal Growth of the High Temperature Superconducting Cuprates

·         SmartGrids: Motivations, Stakes, and Perspectives/Opportunities for Superconductivity

·         SQUIDs in Biomagnetism

·         SQUIDs in Laboratory Applications

·         SQUIDs in Nondestructive Evaluation

·         Superconducting Cables

·         Thin Film Deposition

·         Transformers

·         Types of SQUIDs

·         Wires and Tapes

·         YBCO-Coated Conductors

In March 2015, the following articles were updated or added:

·         Algebraic Topology

·         Calculus of Variations

·         Computer Algebra

·         Differentiable Manifolds

·         Dynamical Systems

·         Functional Analysis

·         Graph and Network Theory

·         Group Theory

·         Mathematical Transformations

·         Monte-Carlo Methods

·         Numerical Analysis

·         Partial Differential Equations

·         Perturbation Methods

·         Random Processes

·         Special Functions

·         Stochastic Differential Equations

·         Topics in Differential Geometry

In November 2014, the following articles were updated or added:

·         Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and its Applications

·         Cancer Therapy with Ion Beams

·         Fundamentals of Controlled Nuclear Fission and Essential Characteristics of Pressurized-Water Reactors

·         Fusion Energy by Magnetic Confinement

·         Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

·         Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

·         Neutron Stars

·         Nuclear Medicine

·         Relativistic Nucleus–Nucleus Collisions

·         Supernovae and their Nucleosynthesis

·         The Physics of Nuclear Power from Fission and Fusion

·         Transmutation of High-Level Nuclear Waste by Means of Accelerator Driven System (ADS)

In April 2014, the following articles were updated or added:

·         Exotic Nuclear Beam Facilities

·         Neutrino Astrophysics

·         Nuclear Structure

·         Nuclear Astrophysics

·         Nuclear Reactions

·         Physics of the Neutron

·         Superheavy Nuclei

·         The Proton

·         Electrostatic Accelerators

·         Optics and Nuclear Photonics

·         Linear Accelerators

·         Nuclear γ-Spectroscopy and the γ-Spheres


In April 2011, the following articles were updated or added:

·         Chemical Analysis

·         Chemical Analysis Metrology

·         Fundamental Constants

·         Fundamentals of Materials Measurement and Testing

·         Laser Spectroscopy

·         Measurement and Instrumentation of Flow

·         Measurement of Basic Electromagnetic Quantities

·         Measurement of Mass and Density

·         Metrology in Medicine

·         Metrology of Time and Frequency

·         Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

·         Quantum Electrical Standards

·         Ultrasonics

·         Uncertainty

·         Units


In January 2010, the following articles were updated or added:

·         Atomic Spectroscopy and Elemental Analysis

·         Biomolecular Structures by Solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

·         Chemometrics and Multivariate Analysis

·         Chromatography

·         Colorimetry

·         Condensed Phase Ultrafast Dynamics

·         Electromagnetic Radiation

·         Electron Scattering by Atoms, Ions and Molecules

·         Fourier and Other Mathematical Transforms

·         Infrared Molecular Vibrational Spectroscopy

·         Laser Sources

·         Linear Laser Spectroscopies

·         Mass Spectrometry

·         Mössbauer Spectroscopy

·         Molecular Fluorescence

·         Muon Spectroscopy

·         Neutron Spectroscopy

·         Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry

·         Optical Spectroscopy of Biological Materials

·         Photoemission and Photoelectron Spectrometry

·         Photophysical and Photochemical Dynamics

·         Positron Spectroscopy

·         Raman Scattering for Speciation and Analysis

·         Resonance Energy Transfer

·         Single Molecule Fluorescence: Biophysics

·         Surface Second Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Generation

·         Ultrafast Spectroscopy

·         Ultraviolet and Visible Light Spectrometers

·         Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectrometers

·         X-Ray Spectroscopy


In October 2009, the following articles were updated or added:

·         Applied String Theory

·         Calorimeters in Particle Physics

·         Cyclotrons

·         Design and Application of Cyclotrons

·         Electrostatic Accelerators

·         Free-Electron Lasers

·         Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

·         Linear Accelerators

·         Managing the Extreme Dataflow of LHC Experiments

·         Neutrino Astrophysics

·         Nuclear Reactions

·         Nuclear Structure

·         Particle Colliders

·         Particle Impact Phenomena

·         Particle Physics

·         Quantum Mechanics

·         Radioactivity

·         Silicon Semiconductor Detectors for Particle Imaging

·         Special Relativity

·         The Standard Model of Elementary Particles

·         Strong Interaction

·         Synchrotrons and Storage Rings

·         Targets for Particle Accelerators

·         Tracking in Particle Detectors

·         Weak Interaction


In August 2009, the following articles were updated or added:

·         Biological Effects of Electromagnetic and Particle Radiation

·         Biological Effects of Sound and Ultrasound

·         Biomedical Imaging Technologies

·         Biorheology

·         Biosimulation and Computations in Systems Biology

·         Chiral Raman and Single Molecule Spectroscopy

·         DNA Biomechanics

·         Dynamics of Individual Muscular Protein Molecules

·         Electron Interactions and Currents in CFT, a Current Functional Theory Applied to Molecules

·         Excited State Dynamics in Biomolecules

·         Exploring Excited State Processes in Photosynthesis — Features of Photosynthetic Light Harvesting

·         Ion Channels

·         Lipid Membrane Technology

·         Models of Membrane Fusion

·         Molecular Dynamics Computations for Proteins: A Case Study in Membrane Ion Permeation

·         Neurobiophysics

·         Optical Tweezers Techniques

·         Organic Superconductors

·         Physical Properties of Biological Membranes

·         Protein Dynamics — Concepts and Experimental Tools

·         Protein–Lipid Interactions in Biological Membranes

·         Quantum Molecular Biological Methods Using Density Functional Theory

·         Radiationless Auger-Like Electronic Transitions in Biomolecules: Bio-Auger Process

·         Raman Spectroscopy in Medicine

·         Raman Spectroscopy in Virus Structure Analysis

·         Single Molecule Biophysics with Fluorescence

·         The Use of Microwaves in Molecular Biophysics

·         X-Ray Methods for Investigation of Structures of Lipid Assemblies


In June 2009, the following articles were added:

·         Introduction to Radiation Detectors

·         Temperature Measurement


In July 2008, the following article was added:

·         Ceramic Materials for Advanced Solid Oxide Fuel Cells


In November 2007 , the following articles were added:

·         Deforming Nanocrystalline Metals: New Insights, New Puzzles

·         Nanotechnological Aspects in Materials for Hydrogen Storage

·         Nanotechnology: An Approach to Mimic Natural Architectures and Concepts

·         Separation Techniques for Carbon Nanotubes


In July 2005 , the following articles were updated or added:

·         Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation

·         Atmospheric Optics

·         Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers: High-Power Operation

·         Geometric Optics

·         Holography

·         Imaging Detectors

·         Information Processing, Optical

·         Interferometry

·         Lasers, Dye

·         Luminescence

·         Microoptics

·         Microscopy

·         Optical Materials

·         Optical Techniques for Mechanical Measurement

·         Optical Techniques for the Analysis and Characterization of Chemicals and Materials

·         Optoelectronics

·         Perturbation Methods

·         Radiation Interaction with Molecules

·         Sensors, Optical

·         Spectrometers, Infrared

·         Spectroscopy, Raman

·         X-ray Optics