Handbook of Fuel Cells

Handbook of Fuel Cells

Online ISBN: 9780470974001

DOI: 10.1002/9780470974001

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  1. Fundamentals and Survey of Systems
    1. Thermodynamics and kinetics of fuel cell reactions
      1. The components of an electrochemical cell
      2. The electrode–electrolyte interface
      3. Thermodynamics of electrodes and cells
      4. Ideal and effective efficiencies of cell reactions and comparison to carnot cycles
      5. Kinetics of electrochemical reactions
      6. Introduction to fuel-cell types
    2. Mass transfer in fuel cells
      1. Mass transfer at two-phase and three-phase interfaces
      2. Mass transfer in flow fields
    3. Heat transfer in fuel cells
      1. Low temperature fuel cells
      2. High temperature fuel cells
      3. Air-cooled PEM fuel cells
    4. Fuel cell principles, systems and applications
      1. History of low temperature fuel cells
      2. History of high temperature fuel cell development
      3. Hydrogen/oxygen (air) fuel cells with alkaline electrolytes
      4. Hydrazine fuel cells
      5. Phosphoric acid electrolyte fuel cells
      6. Aqueous carbonate electrolyte fuel cells
      7. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC)
      8. Other direct-alcohol fuel cells
      9. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
      10. Biochemical fuel cells
      11. Metal/air batteries: the zinc/air case
      12. Seawater aluminum/air cells
      13. Energy storage via electrolysis/fuel cells
  2. Electrocatalysis
    1. Introduction
      1. What is electrocatalysis?
      2. The role of adsorption
      3. Understanding electrocatalysis: from reaction steps to first-principles calculations
      4. Electrode potential as parameter
      5. Catalysis by UPD metals
      6. Outer sphere reactions
      7. The NEMCA effect
    2. Theory of electrocatalysis
      1. Electrode potential and double layer
      2. Reaction mechanism and rate determining steps
      3. Adsorption — volcano curve
      4. Theoretical aspects of some prototypical fuel cell reactions
      5. Theory of electrochemical outer sphere reactions
      6. Theory of the NEMCA effect
    3. Methods in electrocatalysis
      1. Cyclic voltammetry
      2. Product analysis
      3. Vibrational spectroscopy
      4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
      5. Ex-situ surface preparation and analysis: transfer between UHV and electrochemical Cell
      6. Structure sensitive methods: AFM/STM
      7. EXAFS, XANES, SXS
      8. Noramlization of porous active surfaces
      9. Rotating thin-film method for supported catalysts
      10. Combinatorial catalyst development methods
      11. Numerical simulations of electrocatalytic processes
    4. The hydrogen oxidation/evolution reaction
      1. Reaction mechanisms of the H2 oxidation/evolution reaction
      2. The hydrogen electrode reaction and the electrooxidation of CO and H2/CO mixtures on well-characterized Pt and Pt-bimetallic surfaces
      3. Oxidation reactions in high-temperature fuel cells
      4. New CO-tolerant catalyst concepts
      5. Hydrogen evolution reaction
    5. The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction
      1. Reaction mechanisms of the O2 reduction/evolution reaction
      2. Oxygen reduction reaction on smooth single crystal electrodes
      3. O2 reduction on the Pt/polymerelectrolyte interface
      4. Fundamental kinetics/transport processes in MEAs
      5. O2 reduction and structure-related parameters for supported catalysts
      6. Oxide-based ORR catalysts
      7. Chevrel phases and chalcogenides
      8. Macrocycles
      9. Poisons for the O2 reduction reaction
      10. O2-reduction at high temperature: MCFC
      11. O2-reduction at high temperatures: SOFC
    6. Oxidation of small organic molecules
      1. Methanol and CO electrooxidation
      2. Formic acid oxidation
      3. Methanol and formic acid oxidation on ad-metal modified electrodes
      4. Methanol effects on the O2 reduction reaction
      5. Oxidation of C2 molecules
      6. Oscillations and other dynamic instabilities
    7. Other energy conversion related topics
      1. Hydrogenation reactions
      2. CO2-reduction, catalyzed by metal electrodes
      3. Electrochemical supercapacitors and their complementarity to fuel cells and batteries
      4. Technical characteristics of PEM electrochemical capacitors
  3. Fuel Cell Technology and Applications
    1. Sustainable energy supply
      1. Alternative fuels and prosects — overview
      2. Natural gas for power generation and the automotive market
      3. Methanol from fossil and renewable resources
      4. Synthetic hydrocarbons as long-term fuel option
      5. Solar and wind energy coupled with electrolysis and fuel cells
    2. Hydrogen storage and hydrogen generation
      1. Development prospects for hydrogen storage
        1. High pressure storage
        2. Liquid hydrogen technology for vehicles
        3. Hydride storage
      2. Chemical hydrogen storage devices
        1. Aqueous borohydride solutions
        2. Ammonia crackers
      3. Reforming of methanol and fuel processor development
        1. Catalyst development and kinetics for methanol fuel processing
        2. Methanol reformer design considerations
        3. Mixed POX/steam-reforming reactor design considerations
      4. Fuel processing from hydrocarbons to hydrogen
        1. Steam reforming, ATR, partial oxidation: catalysts and reaction engineering
        2. Sulfur removal methods
        3. Catalyst development for water–gas shift
        4. Membrane reactor concepts
        5. PROX catalysts
        6. Autothermal reforming
        7. Alternative design possibilities for integrated fuel processors
      5. Well-to-wheel efficiencies
        1. Well-to-wheel efficiencies of different fuel choices
      6. Hydrogen safety, codes and standards
        1. Hydrogen safety, codes and standards for vehicles and stationary applications
    3. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and systems (PEMFC)
      1. Bipolar plate materials and flow field design
        1. Basic materials corrosion issues
        2. Performance and durability of bipolar plate materials
        3. Metal bipolar plates and coatings
        4. Graphite–based bipolar plates
        5. Serpentine flow field design
        6. Interdigitated flow field design
        7. Two–phase flow and transport
      2. Membrane materials
        1. Perfluorinated membranes
        2. First principles modeling of sulfonic acid based ionomer membranes
        3. Composite perfluorinate membranes
        4. Hydrocarbon membranes
        5. High–temperature membranes
        6. Inorganic/organic composite membranes
        7. Membrane/electrode additives for low–humidification operation
      3. Electro-catalysts
        1. Pt alloys as oxygen reduction catalysts
        2. High dispersion catalysts including novel carbon supports
        3. Development of CO-tolerant catalysts
        4. Manufacture of electrocatalyst powders by a spray-based production platform
        5. Precious metal supply requirements
      4. Membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA)
        1. Diffusion media materials and characterisation
        2. Principles of MEA preparation
      5. Membrane–electrode–assembly (MEA)
        1. Catalyst coated composite membranes
        2. Novel catalysts, catalysts support and catalysts coated membrane methods
      6. State-of-the-art performance and durability
        1. Beginning-of-life MEA performance — efficiency loss contributions
        2. Durability
        3. Effect of ionic contaminants
        4. Reliability issues and voltage degradation
      7. State–of–the–art performance and durability
        1. Mechanisms of membrane degradation
      8. System design and system-specific aspects
        1. System design for stationary power generation
        2. System design for vehicle applications: Daimler Chrysler
        3. System design for vehicle applications: GM/opel
      9. Air-supply components
        1. Air-supply components
      10. Applications based on PEM-technology
        1. Special applications using PEM-technology
    4. Alkaline fuel cells and systems (AFC)
      1. Stack materials and design
      2. System design and applications
      3. A comparison between the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) and the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell
    5. Phosphoric acid fuel cells and systems (PAFC)
      1. Stack materials and stack design
      2. Catalyst studies and coating technologies
      3. Experience with 200 kW PC25 fuel cell power plant
    6. Direct methanol fuel cells and systems (DMFC)
      1. Transport/kinetic limitations and efficiency losses
      2. New materials for DMFC MEAs
      3. System design for transport applications
      4. DMFC system design for portable applications
    7. Molten carbonate fuel cells and systems (MCFC)
      1. Stack material and stack design
      2. Electrolyte and material challenges
      3. System design
      4. Durability
    8. Solid oxide fuel cells and systems (SOFC)
      1. Materials
        1. Current electrolytes and catalysts
        2. Low temperature electrolytes and catalysts
        3. MEA/cell preparation methods: Europe/USA
        4. MEA/cell preparation methods: Japan/Asia
        5. Interconnects
      2. Stack and system design
        1. Internal reforming
        2. System design
      3. New concepts
        1. New microtube concepts
        2. Direct hydrocarbon SOFCs
        3. Novel electrolytes operating at 400-600 °C
    9. Primary and secondary metal/air cells
      1. Alkaline methanol/air power devices
    10. Portable fuel cell systems
      1. Portable direct methanol fuel cell systems
      2. Portable PEM systems
      3. Small-size PEM systems for special applications
    11. Current fuel cell propulsion systems
      1. PEM fuel cell systems for cars/buses
        1. DaimlerChrysler fuel cell activities
        2. General motors/OPEL Fuel cell activities — driving towards a successful future
        3. Honda fuel cell activities
        4. Hy.Power — a technology platform combining a fuel cell system and a supercapacitor
      2. PEM fuel cell systems for submarines
        1. H2/O2-PEM-fuel cell module for an air independent propulsion system in a submarine
      3. AFC fuel cell systems
        1. Automotive development
        2. Space-shuttle fuel cell
    12. Electric utility fuel cell systems
      1. PEMFC fuel cell systems
      2. MCFC fuel cell systems
      3. SOFC fuel cell systems
    13. Future prospects of fuel cell systems
      1. Life-cycle analysis of fuel cell system components
      2. Market concepts, competing technologies and cost challenges for automotive and stationary applications
      3. Potential economic impact of fuel cell technologies
  4. Advances in Electrocatalysis, Materials, Diagnostics and Durability
    1. Electrocatalyst materials for low temperature fuel cells
      1. Novel catalysts
        1. Platinum monolayer oxygen reduction electrocatalysts
        2. Oxygen reduction on platinum bimetallic alloy catalysts
        3. Dealloyed Pt bimetallic electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction
        4. Transition metal/polymer catalysts for O2 reduction
        5. Time to move beyond transition metal — N — C catalysts for oxygen reduction
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          Catalysts for the electro-oxidation of small molecules
        7. Influence of size on the electrocatalytic activities of supported metal nanoparticles in fuel cells related reactions
        8. Enzyme catalysis in biological fuel cells
      2. Fundamental catalysis models
        1. Density functional theory applied to electrocatalysis
        2. First-principles modeling for the electro-oxidation of small molecules
        3. On the pathways of methanol and ethanol oxidation
        4. Reaction pathway analysis and reaction intermediate detection via simultaneous differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) and attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIRS)
        5. Methanol oxidation on oxidized Pt surface
        6. Mechanistic aspects of carbon monoxide oxidation
      3. Catalyst durability
        1. Platinum dissolution models and voltage cycling effects: platinum dissolution in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and low-temperature fuel cells
        2. Catalyst and catalyst-support durability
        3. Effects of contaminants on catalyst activity
    2. Conductive membranes for low-temperature fuel cells
      1. Novel materials
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          Design rules for the improvement of the performance of hydrocarbon-based membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)
        2. High-temperature polybenzimidazol-based membranes
        3. Radiation-grafted proton conducting membranes
        4. Alkaline anion-exchange membranes for low-temperature fuel cell application
      2. Characterization
        1. Colloidal structure of ionomer solutions
        2. Conductivity, permeability, and ohmic shorting of ionomeric membranes
      3. Membrane durability
        1. Highly durable PFSA membranes
        2. Factors influencing ionomer degradation
        3. Chemical and mechanical membrane degradation
        4. Mechanical durability characterization and modeling of ionomeric membranes
    3. Materials for high temperature fuel cells
      1. Fundamental models
        1. Mechanistic understanding and electrochemical modeling of mixed conducting (SOFC) electrodes
        2. Elementary kinetic modeling of solid oxide fuel cell electrode reactions
        3. Mechanical stability
      2. Novel materials
        1. Factors limiting the low temperature operation of SOFCs
        2. New oxide cathodes and anodes
        3. New high-temperature proton conductors for fuel cells and gas separation membranes
        4. Nanoimpact on electrode and electrolyte layers with micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technique
      3. Materials durability
        1. Durability of metallic interconnects and protective coatings
        2. Impact of impurities and interface reaction on electrochemical activity
        3. Application of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) technique on the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials
        4. Durability of cathodes including Cr poisoning
        5. Durable sealing concepts with glass sealants or compression seals
      4. Low-temperature fuel cells
        1. Direct three-dimensional visualization and morphological analysis of pt particles supported on carbon by transmission electron microtomography
    4. Advanced diagnostics, models and design
      1. Low-temperature fuel cells
        1. Design approaches for determining local current and membrane resistance in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs)
        2. Heat and water transport models for polymer electrolyte fuel cells
        3. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) down-the-channel performance model
        4. Use of neutron imaging for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance analysis and design
        5. Local transient techniques in polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) diagnostics
        6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) flow-field design for improved water management
        7. Performance during start-up of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells at subfreezing conditions
        8. Performance impact of cationic contaminants
        9. Modeling the impact of cation contamination in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell
        10. Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells
        11. Design concepts and durability challenges for mini fuel cells
      2. High-temperature fuel cells
        1. New diagnostic methods for polarized state
        2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy as diagnostic tool
        3. Observation and modeling of thermal stresses in cells and cell stacks
    5. Performance degradation
      1. Low-temperature fuel cells
        1. Carbon-support corrosion mechanisms and models
        2. Electrode degradation mechanisms studies by current distribution measurements
        3. Electron microscopy to study membrane electrode assembly (MEA) materials and structure degradation
        4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell degradation: mechanisms and recent progress
        5. Cold-start durability of membrane-electrode assemblies
        6. Field experience with fuel cell vehicles
        7. Membranes and catalyst performance targets for automotive fuel cells
        8. Field experience with portable DMFC products
      2. High-temperature fuel cells
        1. Overview of solid oxide fuel cell degradation
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          Methane reforming kinetics, carbon deposition, and redox durability of Ni/8 yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anodes
        3. Sulfur poisoning on Ni catalyst and anodes
        4. Ni shorting in relation to acid-base equilibrium of molten carbonate for molten cabonate fuel cell (MCFC) application
        5. Impact of impurities on reliability of materials in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack/modules
        6. Field experience with molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) with an emphasis on degradation