The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration

Online ISBN: 9781444351071

DOI: 10.1002/9781444351071

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  1. Prelims
    1. Introduction
    2. Maps
  2. Prehistory
    1. Prehistory Introduction
      1. 1 Prehistoric migration and the rise of humanity
    2. Part I: The Peopling of the World during the Pleistocene
      1. 2 The earliest stages of hominin dispersal in Africa and Eurasia
      2. 3 Hominin migrations before Homo sapiens: Out of Africa – how many times?
      3. 4 Early Old World migrations of Homo sapiens: human biology
      4. 5 Early Old World migrations of Homo sapiens: archaeology
      5. 6 Pleistocene migrations in the Southeast Asian archipelagos
      6. 7 The human colonization of Australia
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        8 The human colonization of the Americas: archaeology
      8. 9 The human colonization of the Americas: population genetics
    3. Part II: Holocene migrations
      1. 10 Neolithic migrations: food production and population expansion
      2. 11 Human migrations and the histories of major language families
      3. 12 Sub-Saharan Africa: linguistics
      4. 13 Sub-Saharan Africa: archaeology
      5. 14 Sub-Saharan Africa: human genetics
      6. 15 Levant and North Africa: Afroasiatic linguistic history
      7. 16 Levant and North Africa: archaeology
      8. 17 Anatolia and the Balkans: archaeology
      9. 18 Europe and western Asia: genetics and population history
      10. 19 Europe and western Asia: Indo-European linguistic history
      11. 20 Europe: Neolithic colonization
      12. 21 Northern Europe and Russia: Uralic linguistic history
      13. 22 Central Asia: genetics and archaeology
      14. 23 Northern and northeastern Asia: archaeology
      15. 24 Northeastern and Central Asia: “Altaic” linguistic history
      16. 25 Eastern Asia: Sino-Tibetan linguistic history
      17. 26 Eastern Asia: archaeology
      18. 27 Eastern Asia and Japan: human biology
      19. 28 Japan: archaeology
      20. 29 Korea: archaeology
      21. 30 South Asia: Dravidian linguistic history
      22. 31 South Asia: archaeology
      23. 32 Trans-Indian Ocean migration
      24. 33 Southeast Asian mainland: linguistic history
      25. 34 Southeast Asian mainland: archaeology
      26. 35 Southeast Asian islands and Oceania: Austronesian linguistic history
      27. 36 Southeast Asian islands: archaeology
      28. 37 Southeast Asian islands and Oceania: human genetics
      29. 38 Papua New Guinea: indigenous migrations in the recent past
      30. 39 Oceania: Lapita migration
      31. 40 Micronesian archaeology
      32. 41 Polynesia, East and South, including transpacific migration
      33. 42 Australia: linguistic history
      34. 43 North America: Na Dene/Athapaskan archaeology and linguistics
      35. 44 North America: Eskimo-Aleut linguistic history
      36. 45 North America: Paleoeskimo and Inuit archaeology
      37. 46 Eastern North America: archaeology and linguistics
      38. 47 Mesoamerica and the southwestern United States: linguistic history
      39. 48 Mesoamerica and the southwestern United States: archaeology
      40. 49 Caribbean Islands: archaeology
      41. 50 Amazonia: linguistic history
      42. 51 Amazonia: archaeology
      43. 52 Andes: linguistic history
      44. 53 Andes: archaeology
  3. Migration A–Z
    1. A
      1. Acadian migration, Canada to Louisiana
      2. Adoption and migration
      3. Africa, commerce and pre-colonial migration
      4. Africa, Fulbe migrations
      5. Africa, gender and migration
      6. Africa, health and migration
      7. Africa, immigrant legislation and laws
      8. Africa, internal migration
      9. Africa, medieval era migrations: an overview
      10. Africa, south of the Sahara, intra- and intercontinental population movements
      11. African diasporas, theories, representations and definitions
      12. African emigration to United Kingdom
      13. African Maghreb, migration to the European Union, 1980–present
      14. African slave trade and maritime transportation
      15. Agriculture and migration
      16. Air travel
      17. Albanian-speaking migration, mid-19th century to present
      18. Andes, migration, 1900 to present
      19. Anglo-American migration to Mexico, 19th to early 20th century
      20. Anglo-Saxon migrations
      21. Anomie, psychological disillusionment
      22. Anthropology of migration
      23. Anticolonialism, decolonialism, neocolonialism
      24. Arab diaspora, United States
      25. Arab Gulf Cooperation Council in Southwest Asia migration
      26. Arctic migrations
      27. Argentina, migration, mid-19th century to present
      28. Armed conflict and refugees
      29. Armenian diaspora
      30. Arts, music, and migration
      31. Ascetics, missionaries, and pilgrims, medieval era
      32. Asia, development and migration
      33. Asia, gender and migration
      34. Asia, migration and development nexus
      35. Asian and minority banks
      36. Asian indentured immigration to the Caribbean, 1838–1917
      37. Asian migration to Australia
      38. Assimilation, integration, and incorporation
      39. Asylum
      40. Atlantic early modern migrations and economic globalization
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        Atlantic historical migrations, 1500–1965
      42. Australasia, immigrant legislation and laws
      43. Australia, internal migration
      44. Australia, migration, early 20th century to present
      45. Austria, migration, mid-19th century to present
    2. B
      1. Balkans, global migration, ethnic conflict, and class struggle
      2. Balkans, migration, mid-19th century to present
      3. Baltic Sea colonizations, medieval era
      4. Baltic States, migration 20th century to present
      5. Bangladesh, migration, 1969 to present
      6. Barbarian migrations (Völkerwanderung)
      7. Basque Country migrations, ancient to 17th century
      8. Basque diaspora, 18th–20th century
      9. Belgium, migration, 1946 to present
      10. Berbers and Arabs in the Maghreb and Europe, medieval era
      11. Berne Initiative
      12. Bilateral labor agreements
      13. Biodiversity, climate change, and migration
      14. Bonded labor and migration, India
      15. Bonded labor and migration, Russia
      16. Bonded labor and migration, United States
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      18. Borderlands and cultural bonds
      19. Brain drain, brain gain, India
      20. Brazil: emigration, 1968 to present
      21. Brazil: internal migration
      22. Brazil: migration and demographic change, 1800–1975
      23. Britain, migration, c.1800 to present
      24. British Isles, medieval colonization
      25. Bulgaria, migration late 19th century to present
      26. Business and professional migrants
      27. Byzantium, medieval era migrations
    3. C
      1. Cameroon, migration 1960s to present
      2. Canada: 20th-century migration
      3. Canada: gender and migration
      4. Canada: immigration and settlement
      5. Canada: internal migration
      6. Canada: migration to the United States
      7. Caribbean African diaspora, 19th–20th century
      8. The Caribbean and Circum-Caribbean migration, 16th century to the present
      9. Caribbean migration to Canada
      10. Caribbean agriculture and migration
      11. Caribbean: culture and migration
      12. Caribbean: Dutch migration, early 20th century to present
      13. Caribbean: English-speaking emigration, 1950s to present
      14. Caribbean: English-speaking regional and external migration, 1830s–2000
      15. Caribbean: French-speaking migration and settlement
      16. Caribbean: gender and migration
      17. Caribbean, Spanish migration, 19th century to present
      18. Caste and international migration, India to the UK
      19. Caucasus, migration 19th century to present
      20. Central America: gender and migration
      21. Central America: migration 1960s to present
      22. Central America: migration patterns and remittances
      23. Central America: regional migration and border policies
      24. Central Asia: migration, early 20th century to present
      25. Central and Eastern European migration, post-World War II to present
      26. Child labor and migration
      27. Children and migration: disease and illness
      28. Children of migrants
      29. Children, migration, and human rights
      30. Children: migration and human capital
      31. Chile, migration 1885 to present
      32. China and inner Central Asia, 7th–13th-century migrations
      33. China: ancient era migrations
      34. China: immigrant legislation and laws
      35. China: internal migration
      36. China: medieval era migrations
      37. China: profit-driven institutions and emigration promotion
      38. China: rural migration
      39. Chinatowns
      40. Chinese emigration to 1948
      41. Chinese in Southeast Asia, c.1400–1950
      42. Chinese migrant workers and primitive accumulation of capital
      43. Chinese migration since 1368
      44. Chinese migration, 1949 to present
      45. Chinese urban migration and politics
      46. Circular migration
      47. Circular migration and gender
      48. Citizenship
      49. Citizenship education and migration
      50. Citizenship, nationality, and legal status
      51. Climate change and migration: an overview
      52. Climate change, migration, and displacement
      53. Co-ethnic employees
      54. Commuting
      55. Concentration camps
      56. Congo (DRC), migration, 1960 to present
      57. Convict labor and migration
      58. Cosmopolitanism and migrant rights
      59. Criminality and victimization
      60. Cross-cultural bonds
      61. Crusades: Middle East migration, medieval era
      62. Cuba: immigration and emigration
      63. Cuba: migration to United States, 1957 to present
      64. Cultural and social memory
      65. Culture and economics of migration
      66. Culture and migration, a critical assessment
      67. Czech Republic and Slovakia, migration 19th century to present
    4. D
      1. Day laborers in the United States
      2. Demographic deficit and migration
      3. Demographic transformation of populations
      4. Demographics and migration: an overview
      5. Denmark, migration 16th century to present
      6. Dependency theory
      7. Deportation of migrants, Netherlands 19th–20th century
      8. Deportation: an overview
      9. Development and receiving countries
      10. Development and underdevelopment
      11. Development partnership, diaspora and subnational development institutions
      12. Diasporas and colonization in Classical Antiquity
      13. Diasporas: diversity and entrepreneurship
      14. Diasporas: historical and conceptual analysis
      15. Disasters and migration
      16. Discrimination and migration: national and ethnic origin
      17. Discrimination and migration: race
      18. Displaced persons
      19. Diversity and mobility, theoretical perspectives
      20. Doctors and migration
      21. Domestic violence, abuse, and migration
      22. Domestic workers and migration
      23. DREAM Act, citizenship, and mobilization
      24. Dual citizenship and nationality
      25. Dublin system
      26. Dutch colonization and settlement
    5. E
      1. East Africa: migration 1960s to present
      2. East Africa: slave migrations
      3. Eastern Europe: medieval era colonizations and reclamation of land
      4. Ecology and migration
      5. ECOWAS and migration
      6. Ecuador, migration 19th century to present
      7. Emancipation from slavery, modern era
      8. Environmentally induced migration, theoretical and methodological research challenges
      9. Ethnic and national pride
      10. Ethnic cleansing
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        Ethnic enclaves and niches
      12. Ethnic enclaves and niches: theory
      13. Ethnic selection in immigration to Latin America
      14. Ethnicity theory for migration research
      15. Europe: gender and migration
      16. Europe: immigrant legislation and laws
      17. Europe: migration and development, 1650 to present
      18. Europe: migration and settlement, North America and the world
      19. European imperialism and migration to Asia
      20. European labor migration, 19th century
      21. European Union: enlargement and the free movement of labor
      22. European Union: expansion and migration
      23. European Union: migration and social charter
      24. Exploitation and migration
    6. F
      1. Fair trade and migration
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        Family migration
      3. Famine and migration
      4. Farm laborers, United States and Canada
      5. Farming, corporate control, cash crops, and migration
      6. Feminism and migration
      7. Film and migration, Africa
      8. Film and migration, Australasia
      9. Film and migration, East Asia
      10. Film and migration, Europe
      11. Film and migration, Latin America
      12. Film and migration, New Europe
      13. Film and migration, North America and Caribbean
      14. Film and migration, South Asia
      15. Film and migration: excavating history and memory
      16. Film and migration: globalization of national cinema
      17. Film and migration: narrative, genre, spectatorship
      18. Film and migration: the problem of trauma
      19. Film festivals and migration
      20. Film, national cinema, and migration
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        Forced migration
      22. Foreign nationals and expatriate residents
      23. France: immigration since 1945
      24. France: political economy of labor migration, early 21st century
      25. Freedom of movement
    7. G
      1. Gay migration, late 19th century to present
      2. Gender and migration
      3. Gender, globalization, and eldercare work
      4. Gender, labor, and migration
      5. Genocide and displacement
      6. Gentrification and displacement
      7. Geography of migration
      8. Germany and Central Europe, migrations
      9. Germany, migration, 1980s to present
      10. Ghana, migrations from colonial to modern times
      11. Global trade and international migration
      12. Goths and Vandals, migration history
      13. Government and private support for migrants in receiving countries
      14. Great Invasions, map showing origins of
      15. Greece, migration 1830s to present
      16. Greek colonization movement, 8th–6th centuries BCE
      17. Greek migrations and colonies, ancient era
      18. Guest workers policies, East and Southeast Asia
      19. Guest workers, 1970s to present
    8. H
      1. Hague Programme on migration
      2. Hajj
      3. Health and migration: Latin Americans in the United States
      4. Health and migration: an overview
      5. Highly skilled IT migrant workers
      6. Hippy trails
      7. HIV/AIDS and migration
      8. HIV/AIDS, migration, and gender in sub-Saharan Africa
      9. Hometown associations
      10. Horn of Africa, migration late 19th century to present
      11. Hospitality workers and migration
      12. Housing and immigrant communities, United States, 1965 to present
      13. Housing and migrant communities
      14. Human rights activism and migration
      15. Human rights, class, race, and inequality
      16. Human smuggling
      17. Hungary, 20th-century migration
    9. I
      1. Ideology, politics, and migration
      2. ILO and the rights of migrant workers
      3. Immigrants, voting, and electoral participation
      4. Imprisonment and punishment
      5. India, medieval era migrations
      6. India, migration 1940s to present
      7. India, migration to British Africa
      8. Indian and Chinese migration to the British Caribbean
      9. Indian emigration, 1947 to present
      10. Indian migration to the South Pacific
      11. Indian migration, Malaysia and Singapore
      12. Indian Ocean indentured labor, 19th and early 20th century
      13. Indian Ocean transoceanic migration, 16th–19th century
      14. Indians in Myanmar/Burma, assimilation and integration
      15. India–Pakistan Partition 1947 and forced migration
      16. Indigenous Mexican-origin immigration to the United States, historical and intersectional perspective
      17. Indigenous migration: Americas, distinctiveness and scale
      18. Indigenous migration: Otavalo diaspora in historical perspective
      19. Indigenous migrations, Canada
      20. Indigenous migrations: the emergence of Maya America
      21. Indigenous migrations, Southeast Asia
      22. Indigenous peoples and migration
      23. Indigenous peoples, rural to urban migration, United States and Canada
      24. Indochina, migration mid-20th century to present
      25. Indonesia, migration 1969 to present
      26. Informal labor and irregular migrant workers
      27. Internal foreign-born migrants
      28. Internal migration, ethnic groups in the UK
      29. Internal migration: an overview
      30. International human rights norms on migrants
      31. International migration and social theory
      32. International migration, economic problems and policies
      33. International Standards and Processes for the Protection of Migrant Rights
      34. Internment camps and migration
      35. Intolerance and migration, United States
      36. Iranian Zoroastrian diaspora
      37. Ireland, migration late 18th century to present
      38. Islam and migration
      39. Italy: internal migration 1800–present
      40. Italy: migration 1815 to present
      41. Italy: migration from 1990s to 2010s
    10. J
      1. Japan: Brazilian Nikkeijin women
      2. Japan: collapse of empire and repatriation
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        Japan: colonization and settlement
      4. Japan: immigration control policy
      5. Japan: Korean Zainichi migration
      6. Japan: medieval era migrations
      7. Japan: Nikkeijin migration
      8. Japan: undocumented immigrant workers
      9. Jewish migration, 19th century to present
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        Jewish migration, antiquity
      11. Jewish migration, medieval era
    11. K
      1. Korea, migration late 19th century to present
    12. L
      1. Labor force participation
      2. Labor migration and worker organization, global North and global South
      3. Labor migration, Europe 1980–2010
      4. Labor migration, poverty, and inequality
      5. Labor migration: an overview
      6. Labor strikes, militancy, and migrant worker collective action
      7. Language and migration: perspectives and experiences
      8. Language and migration: theoretical perspectives
      9. Language rights
      10. Latin America: agriculture and migration
      11. Latin America: development and migration
      12. Latin America: gender and migration
      13. Latin America: internal migration
      14. Latin America: migration flows to the United States
      15. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) migration
      16. Letters of immigrants
      17. Links between internal and international migration
      18. Literature and globalization
      19. Literature and migration
    13. M
      1. Madagascar and Africa, Austronesian migration
      2. Malaysia, migration, 1970s to present
      3. Maritime migrations
      4. Marriage migration
      5. Marriage migration, Europe 1945–2010s
      6. Marxist theories of migration
      7. Medieval era migration: an overview
      8. Mediterranean ancient migrations, 2000–1 BCE
      9. Mediterranean historical migrations
      10. Mediterranean medieval era colonizations
      11. Melting pot theory
      12. Memory and migration: research
      13. Mental health and migration
      14. Merchant communities
      15. Mesopotamian and Persian migrations
      16. Mexican migration to the United States, 1880s to present
      17. Mexico–United States labor migration, 1980s to present
      18. Mexico–United States migration, 1980s–2010
      19. Middle East, labor migration
      20. Migration and agrarian change
      21. Migration and development, global South/Mexico-Morocco
      22. Migration control
      23. Migration controls and restriction policies
      24. Migration to Ancient Rome
      25. Missionaries
      26. Mobility
      27. Multiculturalism
      28. Multilateral approaches to managing migration
      29. Music and migration
      30. Muslim world, medieval era migrations
      31. Myanmar/Burma, migration 1962 to present
    14. N
      1. Napoleonic empire and migration
      2. Nationality policies and migration
      3. Nativism and xenophobia
      4. Nativity, birth rates, and migration
      5. Nazi Germany, escape and emigration
      6. Neoliberal globalization and migration
      7. Netherlands, migration 19th–20th century
      8. New Zealand, migration 19th century to present
      9. Nigeria, migrations early 20th century to present
      10. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and migration
      11. Nordic region, from emigration to immigration
      12. North Atlantic migrations in the Viking Age
      13. North–South migration
      14. Norway, migration 19th century to present
      15. Novels and memoirs and migration
      16. Nurses and health-care professionals as migrant workers
    15. O
      1. Organizations and conventions: rights of migrants
      2. Organized crime and migration: the Lombroso Mafia myth
    16. P
      1. Pacific Islands, migration 18th century to present
      2. Pakistan, migration 1970s to present
      3. Pakistan–Bangladesh Partition 1971 and forced migration
      4. Palestine, migration 1880 to present
      5. Paraguay, migration 19th century to present
      6. Penal colonies
      7. Peninsular India and the Bay of Bengal: mobility and travel, 4th century BCE to 8th century CE
      8. Philippine migration to Japan
      9. Philippines, migration, 1948 to present
      10. Phoenician and Carthaginian migrations
      11. Pilgrimage
      12. Poland, migration 19th century to present
      13. Police raids, detention, and deportation of migrants
      14. Political economy of refugees
      15. Portugal: colonization and settlement
      16. Portugal: migration 16th century to present
      17. Portuguese slave trade in the Americas
      18. Postcolonial refugee narratives
      19. Postcolonial theories of migration
      20. Poverty, development, and migration
      21. Protohistoric European migrations
      22. Public health and development
      23. Public health and migration
      24. Puerto Rico, migration 1868 to present
    17. R
      1. Race and migration
      2. Race, nationality, and migration
      3. Railroads and migration
      4. Rainforests and migration
      5. Reconquista
      6. Refugee families and children
      7. Regularization programs
      8. Religion and migration
      9. Remittance policies, early 21st-century trends and assessments
      10. Remittances and development finance
      11. Remittances and international migration
      12. Remittances and political economy of migration
      13. Remittances and poverty alleviation in poor countries
      14. Remittances and poverty alleviation, Ecuador and Bangladesh
      15. Remittances and undocumented migration
      16. Remittances, motivation
      17. Remittances, political economy of
      18. Reparations and refugees
      19. Research on migration: an overview
      20. Reserve army of labor and migration
      21. Retirement migration
      22. Return migration
      23. Return migration and ethnicity
      24. Revolution and migration, Europe 1848–49
      25. Revolution and migration, France 1789
      26. Roma migrations
      27. Roman colonization
      28. Roman world, mobility
      29. Romania and Moldova, migration mid-19th century to present
      30. Rural migrant workers in the construction industry, New Delhi, India
      31. Rural migration and poverty, United States
      32. Rural migration, Europe and North America 1945 to present
      33. Rural–urban migrations, medieval era
      34. Russia, migration 17th–19th century
      35. Russian internal migration, early 20th century to present
      36. Russian international migration, 20th century
    18. S
      1. Sanctuary movements
      2. Scalabrinian missionaries and migration
      3. Scholars in search of knowledge, medieval era
      4. Schooling, education, and migration
      5. Seasonal migration
      6. Second generation, identity formation
      7. Second-generation migrants: Europe and the United States
      8. Second-generation migrants: Maghrebis in France
      9. Seleucid empire, colonization and settlement
      10. Settler migration and colonies
      11. Sex trafficking and migration
      12. Sex workers and migration, Europe
      13. Shipboard insurrections
      14. Silk Road and migration
      15. Singapore, Chinese migration late 19th century to present
      16. Skills and migration
      17. Slave trade, medieval era
      18. Slavs, medieval migration
      19. Social capital and labor-market outcomes for immigrants
      20. Social networks
      21. Social protest and migration
      22. Social remittances
      23. Sociology of migration
      24. Sojourners
      25. Soldiers and citizens
      26. South America, immigrant legislation and laws
      27. South Asia, migration 1850–1970s
      28. Southeast Asia: migration, ASEAN, and regional agreements
      29. Southern Africa, migration, 7th century to present
      30. Southern Africa: gender and migration
      31. Southern Africa: internal migration
      32. South–South migrations: Indian Oceanic world
      33. Spain and its empire, migration and emigration, c.1450–c.1750
      34. Spain: capitalism, expansion, and settlement, medieval era
      35. Spain: migration 1960s to present
      36. Spanish America, early modern migration 16th–18th century
      37. Sport and migration
      38. Spouses and migration
      39. Sri Lanka, migration 1960s to present
      40. Statelessness
      41. Steerage, slavery, and shipboard insurrections
      42. Steppe, people of (Hungarians, Huns, Avars, Mongols)
      43. Structural adjustment policies and international migration
      44. Student migration, China to Japan
      45. Student migration: an overview
      46. Suburbs
      47. Sustainable population growth
      48. Sweden, migration 19th century to present
      49. Switzerland, migration 19th century to present
      50. Syndicalism and anarchism of migrants
    19. T
      1. Temporary migrant workers and labor organization
      2. Temporary migrant workers, globalization, 20th century to present
      3. Tokyo, foreigners in
      4. Tourism
      5. Trade and migration
      6. Trade networks and migration, early modern Europe
      7. Traders and exiles, medieval era
      8. Trafficking migrants
      9. Transatlantic Slave Trade
      10. Transculturalism
      11. Translocalism
      12. Transnational families, research and scholarship
      13. Transnational labor migration, 1970s to present
      14. Transnationalism and cross-border migration
      15. Transnationalism: an overview
      16. Transregionalism
      17. Travel and migration
      18. Turkey: migration 18th–20th century
      19. Turkey: migration and remittances, 1960s to present
      20. Turks in the Occident, medieval era
    20. U
      1. Ukraine, migration, early 20th century to present
      2. Undocumented migrants: rights and advocacy
      3. Undocumented migration: an overview
      4. Undocumented residents in the United States
      5. United Kingdom, migration 1990s to present
      6. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
      7. United States: African colonization, Manifest Destiny, and Indian Removal
      8. United States: black immigrant economic competition
      9. United States: gender and migration
      10. United States: Great Black migrations, 1900–70
      11. United States: immigration legislation
      12. United States: internal migration, immigrants and new destinations
      13. United States: migration, 1965 to present
      14. United States: nativism and migration
      15. United States: origin countries of foreign-born population
      16. United States: labor markets and immigrant incorporation, new destinations, 1990s to present
      17. Urban sprawl
      18. Urbanization and migration
      19. Urbanization: ethnic and religious segregation
      20. Uruguay, migration and economic modernization, 1820 to the present
      21. Utopian communities
    21. V
      1. Vikings and Normans
    22. W
      1. Wages and migrant labor
      2. War and migration
      3. Wars and population displacement, 20th century
      4. West Indian migration to the United States, 1965 to present
      5. Women, reproduction, and migration
      6. World-systems analysis
      7. WTO, GATS, and migration
    23. Z
      1. Zionism, colonization, settlement, occupation