Comprehensive Physiology

Comprehensive Physiology

Online ISBN: 9780470650714

DOI: 10.1002/cphy

Editor(s): David M. Pollock

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  1. Volume 7
    1. Issue 1, January 2017
      1. Issue Information
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        Endocannabinoid Signaling and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
      3. Mass Transport: Circulatory System with Emphasis on Nonendothermic Species
      4. Pathogenesis of Hyperthyroidism
      5. Neuropeptide Regulation of Social Attachment: The Prairie Vole Model
      6. Critical Illness Myopathy (CIM) and Ventilator-Induced Diaphragm Muscle Dysfunction (VIDD): Acquired Myopathies Affecting Contractile Proteins
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      8. Modulation of Skeletal Muscle Contraction by Myosin Phosphorylation
      9. Hyperbaric Environment: Oxygen and Cellular Damage versus Protection
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        Dendritic Release of Neurotransmitters
      11. Contribution of Maladaptive Adipose Tissue Expansion to Development of Cardiovascular Disease
  2. Volume 6
    1. Issue 1, January 2016
      1. Issue Information
      2. Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise Training
      3. Fetal and Neonatal HPA Axis
      4. Measuring Selection on Physiology in the Wild and Manipulating Phenotypes (in Terrestrial Nonhuman Vertebrates)
      5. Epigenetics/Programming in the HPA Axis
      6. Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle
      7. Pathophysiological Functions of Rnd3/RhoE
      8. Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
      9. Salt, Angiotensin II, Superoxide, and Endothelial Function
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        Thermal Indices and Thermophysiological Modeling for Heat Stress
      11. Neural Control of Vascular Function in Skeletal Muscle
      12. Glucose Transporters in Cardiac Metabolism and Hypertrophy
      13. Thyroid Hormone, Hormone Analogs, and Angiogenesis
      14. Evolution, Development, and Function of the Pulmonary Surfactant System in Normal and Perturbed Environments
      15. Cytochrome P450 and Lipoxygenase Metabolites on Renal Function
      16. Cold Stress Effects on Exposure Tolerance and Exercise Performance
      17. Homocysteine Metabolism, Atherosclerosis, and Diseases of Aging
      18. Mitochondrial Dynamics and Heart Failure
      19. Extracellular Ubiquitin: Role in Myocyte Apoptosis and Myocardial Remodeling
    2. Issue 2, April 2016
      1. Issue Information
      2. PTH and Vitamin D
      3. Regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Stress Response
      4. Development of the Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus
      5. Microgravity Stress: Bone and Connective Tissue
      6. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion
      7. Metabolic Flexibility: Hibernation, Torpor, and Estivation
      8. Integrative Physiology of Fasting
      9. Lung Structure and the Intrinsic Challenges of Gas Exchange
      10. Lung Circulation
      11. Adhesion Molecules: Master Controllers of the Circulatory System
      12. Hemodynamics
      13. Integration of Central and Peripheral Respiratory Chemoreflexes
      14. Thin Filament Structure and the Steric Blocking Model
      15. Euthyroid Sick Syndrome
      16. The Insular Cortex and the Regulation of Cardiac Function
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    3. Issue 3, July 2016
      1. Issue Information
      2. Reproductive Steroid Regulation of Mood and Behavior
      3. Control of the Cutaneous Circulation by the Central Nervous System
      4. Thyroid Hormone and Cardioprotection
      5. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis
      6. Overview of the Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System
      7. Regulation of Skeletal Muscle by microRNAs
      8. Sex Hormones and Cognition: Neuroendocrine Influences on Memory and Learning
      9. Dopamine, Neurochemical Processes, and Oxygen Toxicity at Pressure
      10. Time Domains of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response and Their Molecular Basis
      11. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis
      12. Neurophysiology of Skin Thermal Sensations
      13. Mood, Food, and Fertility: Adaptations of the Maternal Brain
      14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Vascular Diseases
      15. Role of Mitochondria in Cerebral Vascular Function: Energy Production, Cellular Protection, and Regulation of Vascular Tone
      16. Functions of the Gallbladder
      17. Neurochemistry of Pressure-Induced Nitrogen and Metabolically Inert Gas Narcosis in the Central Nervous System
    4. Issue 4, October 2016
      1. Issue Information
      2. Mitochondrial Actions of Thyroid Hormone
      3. Physiology of Visceral Pain
      4. Neurocardiology: Structure-Based Function
      5. Diseases of the Nucleoskeleton
      6. Cardiac Metabolism in Perspective
      7. Magnocellular Neurons and Posterior Pituitary Function
      8. Heart Valve Biomechanics and Underlying Mechanobiology
      9. Calcium Homeostasis in Health and in Kidney Disease
      10. Neural Control of the Upper Airway: Respiratory and State-Dependent Mechanisms
      11. Undiscovered Physiology of Transcript and Protein Networks
      12. Adipose Tissue-Derived Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Function and Regulation
      13. HPA Axis Interactions with Behavioral Systems
      14. Modulation of Systemic Metabolism by MMP-2: From MMP-2 Deficiency in Mice to MMP-2 Deficiency in Patients
  3. Volume 5
    1. Issue 1, January 2015
      1. Issue Information
      2. Peripheral and Central Effects of Circulating Catecholamines
      3. Human Cardiovascular Responses to Passive Heat Stress
      4. Distal Convoluted Tubule
      5. Human Locomotion and Heat Loss: An Evolutionary Perspective
      6. Sympathoneural and Adrenomedullary Responses to Mental Stress
      7. Autonomic Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Production
      8. Trans-System Mechanisms Against Ischemic Myocardial Injury
      9. Neural Control of the Circulation: How Sex and Age Differences Interact in Humans
      10. Hypothalamus as an Endocrine Organ
      11. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Lactation and Milk Production
      12. Adrenocortical Growth and Cancer
      13. Neural Control of the Lower Urinary Tract
      14. Developmental Conditioning of the Vasculature
      15. Autonomic Control of the Eye
    2. Issue 2, April 2015
      1. Issue Information
      2. Autonomic Adjustments to Exercise in Humans
      3. Thioredoxin Superfamily and Its Effects on Cardiac Physiology and Pathology
      4. Endothelial Cell Regulation of Pulmonary Vascular Tone, Inflammation, and Coagulation
      5. Peripheral Chemoreception and Arterial Pressure Responses to Intermittent Hypoxia
      6. Air Quality and Temperature Effects on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction
      7. Heat Stroke
      8. Atrial Fibrillation: Mechanisms, Therapeutics, and Future Directions
      9. Metabolic Shifts during Aging and Pathology
      10. Extracellular Matrix Communication and Turnover in Cardiac Physiology and Pathology
      11. Intracellular Signaling of Cardiac Fibroblasts
      12. Channelopathies of Skeletal Muscle Excitability
      13. Alcohol Effects on Cardiac Function
      14. Nitric Oxide and the Cardiovascular System
      15. Sympathetic Preganglionic Neurons: Properties and Inputs
      16. Myocardial Tissue Caveolae
      17. Cardiac Fibroblast Physiology and Pathology
      18. Mathematical Modeling in Neuroendocrinology
      19. Mechanisms of Cardiac Pain
      20. Energetics of Contraction
      21. Fetal Programming and Cardiovascular Pathology
    3. Issue 3, July 2015
      1. Issue Information
      2. Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration
      3. Potential Central Nervous System Involvement in Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
      4. Cardiac Physiology of Aging: Extracellular Considerations
      5. Treatment of Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Ischemic and Pharmacological Postconditioning
      6. Role of Microvascular Disruption in Brain Damage from Traumatic Brain Injury
      7. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis—Feedback Control
      8. Wnt Signaling in Cardiac Disease
      9. Estradiol Membrane-Initiated Signaling and Female Reproduction
      10. The Dystrophin Complex: Structure, Function, and Implications for Therapy
      11. Effects of Stroke on the Autonomic Nervous System
      12. Platelets and Their Interactions with Other Immune Cells
      13. Endocrine-Autonomic Linkages
      14. Cardiac Physiology of Pregnancy
      15. Cerebral Vascular Control and Metabolism in Heat Stress
      16. Placental Gas Exchange and the Oxygen Supply to the Fetus
      17. Role of the Thyroid System in Myelination and Neural Connectivity
      18. Ion Channels in the Heart
      19. Neuroendocrine Regulation of Hydromineral Homeostasis
      20. Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy in Adults
      21. The Gastrointestinal Circulation: Physiology and Pathophysiology
    4. Issue 4, October 2015
      1. Issue Information
      2. Cerebral Blood-Flow Regulation During Hemorrhage
      3. Biomechanics of Cardiac Function
      4. Gene Targeting in Neuroendocrinology
      5. Metabolism at the Max: How Vertebrate Organisms Respond to Physical Activity
      6. Human Physiology in an Aquatic Environment
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        Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells
      8. Aging Effects on Cardiac Progenitor Cell Physiology
      9. Glucose Homeostasis and Cardiovascular Alterations in Diabetes
      10. Pathophysiology of Myocardial Infarction
      11. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure
      12. Assessment of Cardiac Function—Basic Principles and Approaches
      13. Skeletal Muscle Changes in Chronic Cardiac Disease and Failure
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  4. Volume 4
    1. Issue 1, January 2014
      1. Issue Information
      2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
      3. Cutaneous Vasodilator and Vasoconstrictor Mechanisms in Temperature Regulation
      4. Bile Proteome in Health and Disease
      5. Fever, Immunity, and Molecular Adaptations
      6. Exocytosis and Synaptic Vesicle Function
      7. Energy Metabolism in the Liver
      8. Heat Acclimation, Epigenetics, and Cytoprotection Memory
      9. Metabolic Scaling in Animals: Methods, Empirical Results, and Theoretical Explanations
      10. Dehydration: Physiology, Assessment, and Performance Effects
      11. Sensory Nerves in Lung and Airways
      12. Human Heat Adaptation
      13. Transport of Amino Acids in the Kidney
    2. Issue 2, April 2014
      1. Issue Information
      2. Osmoregulation and Excretion
      3. Optimal Composition of Fluid-Replacement Beverages
      4. Environmental Temperature Impact on Bone and Cartilage Growth
      5. Performance in the Heat—Physiological Factors of Importance for Hyperthermia-Induced Fatigue
      6. Pathophysiology and Diagnosis of Disorders of the Adrenal Medulla: Focus on Pheochromocytoma
      7. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis: Neuropsychiatric Aspects
      8. Physiological Basis for the Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adrenal Disorders: Cushing's Syndrome, Adrenal Insufficiency, and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
      9. Renal Handling of Phosphate and Sulfate
      10. Reproductive Hormone Influences on Thermoregulation in Women
      11. Dysautonomia in Parkinson Disease
      12. Sympathetic Neural Activity to the Cardiovascular System: Integrator of Systemic Physiology and Interindividual Characteristics
      13. Vestibulo-Sympathetic Responses
    3. Issue 3, July 2014
      1. Issue Information
      2. Steroidogenesis—Adrenal Cell Signal Transduction
      3. The Multifaceted Mineralocorticoid Receptor
      4. Thermal Stress and Toxicity
      5. Regulation of Aldosterone Synthesis and Secretion
      6. Thermoregulatory Modeling for Cold Stress
      7. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Mineralocorticoid Disorders
      8. Sex Differences in the HPA Axis
      9. Decompression and Decompression Sickness
      10. Autonomic Nervous System and Immune System Interactions
      11. Classical Renin-Angiotensin System in Kidney Physiology
      12. Saturation Diving; Physiology and Pathophysiology
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        HPA Axis-Rhythms
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    4. Issue 4, October 2014
      1. Issue Information
      2. Gaseous Mediators in Temperature Regulation
      3. Central Nervous System Control of Gastrointestinal Motility and Secretion and Modulation of Gastrointestinal Functions
      4. Adrenal Androgens and Androgen Precursors—Definition, Synthesis, Regulation and Physiologic Actions
      5. Maintaining Thermogenesis in Cold Exposed Humans: Relying on Multiple Metabolic Pathways
      6. Importance of Endocytic Pathways in Liver Function and Disease
      7. Autonomic Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury
      8. Nonpulmonary Influences on Gas Exchange
      9. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis and Aging
      10. Regulation of Breathing and Autonomic Outflows by Chemoreceptors
      11. Mechanisms of Fever Production and Lysis: Lessons from Experimental LPS Fever
      12. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters
      13. Hypoventilation Syndromes
      14. Central Nervous System Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue
      15. Organic Anion Uptake by Hepatocytes
      16. Molecular Mechanisms and Regulation of Urinary Acidification
  5. Volume 3
    1. Issue 1, January 2013
      1. Issue Information
      2. Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance: Underlying Causes and Modification by Exercise Training
      3. Roles of Ion Transport in Control of Cell Motility
      4. The Control of Movement Following Traumatic Brain Injury
      5. Central Sleep Apnea
      6. Assessment of Renal Function; Clearance, the Renal Microcirculation, Renal Blood Flow, and Metabolic Balance
      7. Renal Ammonia Metabolism and Transport
      8. Molecular Mechanism of TRP Channels
      9. Hepatocyte Polarity
      10. How Animals Move: Comparative Lessons on Animal Locomotion
      11. Iron Homeostasis in the Liver
      12. Neuromodulation: Purinergic Signaling in Respiratory Control
      13. Porphyrin and Heme Metabolism and the Porphyrias
      14. The Influence of Exercise on Cognitive Abilities
      15. Barrier Enhancing Signals in Pulmonary Edema
      16. Principles of Liver Regeneration and Growth Homeostasis
      17. Calcium Signaling in the Liver
      18. Physiology of Cholangiocytes
    2. Issue 2, April 2013
      1. Issue Information
      2. Liver Immunology
      3. miRNA in the Regulation of Ion Channel/Transporter Expression
      4. Hepatic Nervous System and Neurobiology of the Liver
      5. Phenomics of Cardiac Chloride Channels
      6. Pulmonary Gas Exchange and Acid-Base Balance During Exercise
      7. Comparative Digestive Physiology
      8. Kupffer Cells in the Liver
      9. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Liver Development
      10. Renal Vascular Structure and Rarefaction
      11. Parkinson Disease and Exercise
      12. Evolution of Air Breathing: Oxygen Homeostasis and the Transitions from Water to Land and Sky
      13. Circadian Rhythms in Liver Physiology and Liver Diseases
      14. Label-Free Analysis of Cellular Biochemistry by Raman Spectroscopy and Microscopy
      15. Immune and Inflammatory Role in Renal Disease
      16. Apoptosis and Necrosis in the Liver
    3. Issue 3, July 2013
      1. Issue Information
      2. Reactive Oxygen Species in Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling
      3. Bile Formation and Secretion
      4. Proximal Nephron
      5. Neurotrophic Factors in Development and Regulation of Respiratory Control
      6. Regulation of Cellular Gas Exchange, Oxygen Sensing, and Metabolic Control
      7. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling
      8. Zebrafish Models of Human Liver Development and Disease
      9. Plasma Membrane—Cortical Cytoskeleton Interactions: A Cell Biology Approach with Biophysical Considerations
      10. Molecular Biology of Freezing Tolerance
      11. Exercise and Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM)
      12. Muscle as a Secretory Organ
      13. Encapsulated Environment
    4. Issue 4, October 2013
      1. Issue Information
      2. Broad Spectrum of Hepatocyte Inclusions in Humans, Animals, and Experimental Models
      3. Particle Transport and Deposition: Basic Physics of Particle Kinetics
      4. Hepatic Stellate Cells and Liver Fibrosis
      5. Steatosis in the Liver
      6. Mechanical Properties of Respiratory Muscles
      7. Concepts of Scientific Integrative Medicine Applied to the Physiology and Pathophysiology of Catecholamine Systems
      8. Monocarboxylic Acid Transport
      9. Mechanisms Modulating Skeletal Muscle Phenotype
      10. Thermometry, Calorimetry, and Mean Body Temperature during Heat Stress
      11. Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug Biotransformation and Transport Systems
      12. Interaction of Stress and Dietary NaCl Intake in Hypertension: Renal Neural Mechanisms
      13. Targeted Delivery of Genes to Endothelial Cells and Cell- and Gene-Based Therapy in Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
  6. Volume 2
    1. Issue 1, January 2012
      1. Issue Information
      2. Mechanobiology in Lung Epithelial Cells: Measurements, Perturbations, and Responses
      3. Regulation of Ion Channels by Membrane Lipids
      4. Respiratory Function During Anesthesia: Effects on Gas Exchange
      5. Renal Medullary Circulation
      6. Peripheral Chemoreceptors: Function and Plasticity of the Carotid Body
      7. Central Chemoreceptors: Locations and Functions
      8. Motility, Survival, and Proliferation
      9. Cryo-EM in the Study of Membrane Transport Proteins
      10. Mechanics and Function of the Pulmonary Vasculature: Implications for Pulmonary Vascular Disease and Right Ventricular Function
      11. Peripheral Circulation
      12. Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Lung Fluid Balance
      13. Neural Control of the Upper Airway: Integrative Physiological Mechanisms and Relevance for Sleep Disordered Breathing
      14. Bioenergetics of Exercising Humans
      15. TRP Channels
      16. History of Respiratory Mechanics Prior to World War II
      17. Micropuncture of the Kidney: A Primer on Techniques
      18. Phylogenetic Analyses: Comparing Species to Infer Adaptations and Physiological Mechanisms
      19. Structure and Composition of Pulmonary Arteries, Capillaries, and Veins
      20. Pulmonary Circulation at Exercise
      21. Control of Breathing During Exercise
      22. The Ciliary Cytoskeleton
    2. Issue 2, April 2012
      1. Issue Information
      2. Uriniferous Tubule: Structural and Functional Organization
      3. Role of Monosaccharide Transport Proteins in Carbohydrate Assimilation, Distribution, Metabolism, and Homeostasis
      4. Historical Perspectives on the Control of Breathing
      5. Oxygen Uptake Kinetics
      6. Skeletal Muscle Fatigue
      7. Calcium Pumps: Why So Many?
      8. Chloride Transport
      9. Ventilation and Respiratory Mechanics
      10. Lack of Exercise Is a Major Cause of Chronic Diseases
      11. Integration of Biological Clocks and Rhythms
      12. Autonomic Neural Control of Intrathoracic Airways
      13. Modulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels by Sialylation
      14. Pathophysiology of Acute Kidney Injury
      15. Voltage-Gated Proton Channels
      16. Coordination of Breathing with Nonrespiratory Activities
      17. Phenotypic Plasticity: Molecular Mechanisms and Adaptive Significance
      18. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity
      19. Oxygen Transport by Hemoglobin
      20. Structure and Dynamic Properties of Membrane Proteins using NMR
      21. Regulation of Transport in the Connecting Tubule and Cortical Collecting Duct
    3. Issue 3, July 2012
      1. Issue Information
      2. Gas Exchange in the Respiratory Distress Syndromes
      3. Computational Models and Emergent Properties of Respiratory Neural Networks
      4. Biophysics of Glomerular Filtration
      5. Cell Biology and Physiology of CLC Chloride Channels and Transporters
      6. Control of Breathing in Invertebrate Model Systems
      7. Pathological Consequences of Intermittent Hypoxia in the Central Nervous System
      8. Factors Limiting Exercise Tolerance in Chronic Lung Diseases
      9. Claudins and Other Tight Junction Proteins
      10. Mechanical Properties of the Upper Airway
      11. Control of Breathing Activity in the Fetus and Newborn
      12. Life Under Water: Physiological Adaptations to Diving and Living at Sea
      13. Airway-Parenchymal Interdependence
      14. Exercise Limitation Following Transplantation
      15. Gap Junctions
      16. Role of Ion Transport in Control of Apoptotic Cell Death
      17. Structure and Function of the Thin Limbs of the Loop of Henle
      18. K+ Channels: Function-Structural Overview
      19. Coping with Thermal Challenges: Physiological Adaptations to Environmental Temperatures
      20. Effects of Gas Exchange on Acid-Base Balance
      21. Genetic Diseases: Congenital Central Hypoventilation, Rett, and Prader-Willi Syndromes
    4. Issue 4, October 2012
      1. Issue Information
      2. Effects of Anesthetics, Sedatives, and Opioids on Ventilatory Control
      3. Cell Migration
      4. Hypertension: Physiology and Pathophysiology
      5. Pontine Mechanisms of Respiratory Control
      6. Fluid Flux and Clearance in Acute Lung Injury
      7. Chronic Blood Pressure Control
      8. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Analysis of Tubule Function
      9. Energy and Metabolism
      10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
      11. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Gas Exchange
      12. Sensory Systems in the Control of Movement
      13. Motor Unit
      14. The Cellular Building Blocks of Breathing
      15. Nonclassical Renin-Angiotensin System and Renal Function
      16. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
      17. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise
      18. Nuclear Receptor Control of Enterohepatic Circulation
      19. Characterization and Regulation of Mechanical Loading-Induced Compensatory Muscle Hypertrophy
      20. Ventilatory Failure, Ventilator Support, and Ventilator Weaning
      21. Apnea of Prematurity
      22. Exercise Training and Peripheral Arterial Disease
  7. Volume 1
    1. Issue 1, January 2011
      1. Issue Information
      2. Highly Athletic Terrestrial Mammals: Horses and Dogs
      3. Determinants of Pulmonary Blood Flow Distribution
      4. Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
      5. Growth Factors and Cytokines in Acute Lung Injury
      6. Gaseous Therapeutics in Acute Lung Injury
      7. Pulmonary Vascular Disease Related to Hemodynamic Stress in the Pulmonary Circulation
      8. The Adventitia: Essential Role in Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling
      9. Hyperbaric Conditions
      10. Exercise: Kinetic Considerations for Gas Exchange
      11. Distribution of Perfusion
      12. Environmental Perturbations: Obesity
      13. Mechanical and Structural Plasticity
      14. Smooth Muscle Cell Hypertrophy, Proliferation, Migration and Apoptosis in Pulmonary Hypertension
      15. Pulmonary Circulation in Extreme Environments
      16. Gas Exchange Under Altered Gravitational Stress
      17. Endothelial Cell Energy Metabolism, Proliferation, and Apoptosis in Pulmonary Hypertension
      18. Spatial Distribution of Ventilation and Perfusion: Mechanisms and Regulation
      19. Hibernation and Gas Exchange
      20. Carbon Monoxide Transport and Actions in Blood and Tissues
      21. Diving Mammals
      22. Genomics and Proteomics of Pulmonary Vascular Disease
      23. Microgravity
      24. Stress Transmission within the Cell
      25. Right Ventricle in Pulmonary Hypertension
      26. Nitric Oxide Transport in Blood: A Third Gas in the Respiratory Cycle
    2. Issue 2, April 2011
      1. Issue Information
      2. Inert Gas Transport in Blood and Tissues
      3. Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
      4. Gas Exchange Consequences of Left Heart Failure
      5. Ventilation-Induced Lung Injury
      6. Gas Exchange in Disease: Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Cystic Fibrosis, and Interstitial Lung Disease
      7. Urea Transport in the Kidney
      8. Neural Control of Renal Function
      9. Experimental and Transgenic Models of Pulmonary Hypertension
      10. Mechanics of the Nucleus
      11. Gas Mixing in the Airways and Airspaces
      12. Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Vascular Permeability: Use of Transgenic Models
      13. Physiology of Endothelin and the Kidney
      14. Regulation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis and GLUT4 Expression by Exercise
      15. Reactive Oxygen Species: Impact on Skeletal Muscle
      16. The Kallikrein-Kinin System as a Regulator of Cardiovascular and Renal Function
      17. Complexity and Emergent Phenomena
      18. Molecular Physiology of the Medullary Collecting Duct
      19. Mechanotransduction
    3. Issue 3, July 2011
      1. Issue Information
      2. Dopamine and Renal Function and Blood Pressure Regulation
      3. Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Skeletal Muscle: Implications for Health and Disease
      4. Airway Gas Flow
      5. Endocytosis of Environmental and Engineered Micro- and Nanosized Particles
      6. Pathophysiology of the Diabetic Kidney
      7. Oscillation Mechanics of the Respiratory System
      8. Mechanics of the Respiratory Muscles
      9. Transport of Gases between the Environment and Alveoli—Theoretical Foundations
      10. Lung Parenchymal Mechanics
      11. Exercise and Muscular Dystrophy: Implications and Analysis of Effects on Musculoskeletal and Cardiovascular Systems
      12. Oxidants and Redox Signaling in Acute Lung Injury
      13. Molecular Mechanisms of Muscle Plasticity with Exercise
      14. Pulmonary Vascular Stiffness: Measurement, Modeling, and Implications in Normal and Hypertensive Pulmonary Circulations
      15. Lung Transplantation and Lung Volume Reduction Surgery
      16. Physiological and Pathological Angiogenesis in the Adult Pulmonary Circulation
      17. History of Respiratory Gas Exchange
      18. Comparative Physiology of the Pulmonary Circulation
      19. Causes of and Compensations for Hypoxemia and Hypercapnia
      20. Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Ion Channels in Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Vascular Remodeling
      21. Genomics and Genetics in the Biology of Adaptation to Exercise
    4. Issue 4, October 2011
      1. Issue Information
      2. Exercise Physiology of Normal Development, Sex Differences, and Aging
      3. Metabolism, Temperature, and Ventilation
      4. Regulation of NhaA by Protons
      5. Clinical and Molecular Genetic Features of Hereditary Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
      6. Cyclooxygenase Metabolites in the Kidney
      7. Erythropoietin
      8. Renal Transport of Organic Anions and Cations
      9. Airway Gas Exchange and Exhaled Biomarkers
      10. Expiratory Flow Limitation
      11. Integrated Physiological Mechanisms of Exercise Performance, Adaptation, and Maladaptation to Heat Stress
      12. Inflammatory Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
      13. Exercise and Osteoarthritis: Cause and Effects
      14. Mechanics of the Lung in the 20th Century
      15. Mechanisms of Muscle Injury, Repair, and Regeneration
      16. Insights into Biomedicine from Animal Adaptations
      17. Na+/H+ Exchangers
      18. Neuronal Control of Breathing: Sex and Stress Hormones
      19. Gastric H+,K+-ATPase
      20. Ca2+-Activated Cl Channels
      21. Membrane Proteins Structure and Dynamics by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  8. Supplement 1: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Cellular Biology of Neurons
    1. Preface
    2. Overview
    3. General Morphology of Neurons and Neuroglia
    4. Core Conductor Theory and Cable Properties of Neurons
    5. Ionic Basis of Resting and Action Potentials
    6. Structural and Metabolic Processes Directly Related to Action Potential Propagation
    7. Physical Principles and Formalisms of Electrical Excitability
    8. Activation in Striated Muscle
    9. Structure of the Synapse
    10. Junctional Transmission I. Postsynaptic Mechanisms
    11. Junctional Transmission II. Presynaptic Mechanisms
    12. Electrical Transmission: A Functional Analysis and Comparison to Chemical Transmission
    13. Junctional Transmission in Smooth Muscle and the Autonomic Nervous System
    14. Biochemistry and Physiology of Cholinergic Transmission
    15. Biochemical Aspects of Neurotransmitter Receptors
    16. Cellular Aspects of Catecholaminergic Neurons
    17. Biochemistry and Physiology of Serotonergic Transmission
    18. Biochemistry and Physiology of Amino Acid Transmitters
    19. Cellular Biology of the Neurosecretory Neuron
    20. Axonal Transport: The Intracellular Traffic of the Neuron
    21. Cell Culture in Neurobiology
    22. Trophic Interactions of Neurons
    23. Specificity of Neurons and their Interconnections
    24. Glial Cells
    25. Spinal Neurons and Synapses
    26. The Olfactory Bulb: A Simple System in the Mammalian Brain
    27. The Physiology of Supraspinal Neurons in Mammals
    28. Organization of Invertebrate Motor Systems
    29. Principles in the Organization of Invertebrate Sensory Systems
    30. Neuronal Plasticity and the Modification of Behavior
  9. Supplement 2: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Motor Control
    1. Comments on History of Motor Control
    2. Mechanics of Skeleton and Tendons
    3. Muscle, the Motor
    4. Transmitters in Motor Systems
    5. Motor Prostheses
    6. Muscle Spindles: Their Messages and Their Fusimotor Supply
    7. Limitations of Somatosensory Feedback in Control of Posture and Movement
    8. Neural Control of Muscle Length and Tension
    9. Tremor and Clonus
    10. Motor Units: Anatomy, Physiology, and Functional Organization
    11. Functional Organization of Motoneuron Pool and its Inputs
    12. Integration in Spinal Neuronal Systems
    13. Anatomy of the Descending Pathways
    14. Vestibulospinal and Reticulospinal Systems
    15. The Pyramidal Tract
    16. Preface
    17. Cerebellar Afferent Systems
    18. Electrophysiology of the Cerebellar Networks
    19. Cerebellar Control of Posture and Movement
    20. Anatomy of the Corpus Striatum and Brain Stem Integrating Systems
    21. Electrophysiology of the Corpus Striatum and Brain Stem Integrating Systems
    22. Motor Functions of the Basal Ganglia
    23. Internal Organization of the Motor Cortex for Input-Output Arrangements
    24. Role of Motor Cortex in Voluntary Movements in Primates
    25. Organization of Secondary Motor Areas of Cerebral Cortex
    26. Prefrontal Cortex in Motor Control
    27. Control of Locomotion in Bipeds, Tetrapods, and Fish
    28. Neural Mechanisms of Mandibular Control: Mastication and Voluntary Biting
    29. Control of Eye Movements
    30. Eye-Head Coordination
    31. Human Manual Control
    32. Behavioral Analysis of Movement
    33. Corollary Discharges: Motor Commands and Perception
    34. Perceptual Structures and Distributed Motor Control
  10. Supplement 3: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Sensory Processes
    1. Preface
    2. Sensory Research in Historical Perspective: Some Philosophical Foundations of Perception
    3. Perception
    4. Detection and Discrimination of Environmental Change
    5. Sensory Function in Animals
    6. Organization of the Thalamocortical Complex and its Relation to Sensory Processes
    7. The Brain Stem Reticular Core and Sensory Function
    8. The Beginnings of Visual Perception: The Retinal Image and its Initial Encoding. Appendix: Fourier Transforms and Shift-Invariant Linear Operators
    9. The Vertebrate Retina
    10. Processing of Visual Information within the Retinostriate System
    11. Neural Mechanisms of Color Vision
    12. The Superior Colliculus and Visual Function
    13. Postnatal Development of Function in the Mammalian Visual System
    14. Auditory Perception
    15. Peripheral Mechanisms of Hearing
    16. Peripheral Neural Processing of Auditory Information
    17. Central Neural Mechanisms of Hearing
    18. The Sense of Touch: Performance and Peripheral Neural Processes
    19. Central Nervous Mechanisms in Mechanoreceptive Sensibility
    20. Thermal Sensibility
    21. Pain and Nociception
    22. The Vestibular System
    23. Perception of the Body in Space: Mechanisms
    24. Taste and Olfaction: Sensory Discrimination
    25. Central Neural Mechanisms of Taste
    26. Hemispheric Specialization
  11. Supplement 4: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Intrinsic Regulatory Systems of the Brain
    1. Preface
    2. Mechanisms of Transmitter Action in the Vertebrate Central Nervous System
    3. Mechanisms of Autonomic Integration
    4. Catecholaminergic Brain Stem Regulatory Systems
    5. Specific Systems of the Reticular Core: Serotonin
    6. Histaminergic Transmission in the Brain
    7. Organization of Mammalian Neuroendocrine System
    8. Central Nervous System Control of Nutrient Homeostasis
    9. Hypothalamohypophysiotropic Peptide Systems
    10. Neurophysiology of Breathing in Mammals
    11. Neurogenic Control of the Vascular System: Focus on Cerebral Circulation
    12. Central Control of Nociception
    13. Reward, Motivation, Cognition: Psychobiology of Mesotelencephalic Dopamine Systems
    14. Brain Monoamines, Homeostasis, and Adaptive Behavior
    15. Neuronal Basis of Behavioral State Control
  12. Supplement 5: Handbook of Physiology, The Nervous System, Higher Functions of the Brain
    1. Preface
    2. Neuroscience and Higher Brain Function: From Myth to Public Responsibility
    3. Cell Biological Studies of Learning in Simple Vertebrate and Invertebrate Systems
    4. Plasticity in Adult Avian Central Nervous System: Possible Relation Between Hormones, Learning, and Brain Repair
    5. Neurogenetics and Behavior Related to Higher Brain Functions
    6. Mechanisms of Learning in Complex Neural Systems
    7. Diffuse Cortical Projection Systems: Anatomical Organization and Role in Cortical Function
    8. Memory: Anatomical Organization of Candidate Brain Regions
    9. Memory: Neural Organization and Behavior
    10. Circuitry of Primate Prefrontal Cortex and Regulation of Behavior by Representational Memory
    11. Emotion
    12. Attention: Behavior and Neural Mechanisms
    13. Inferior Parietal Lobule Function in Spatial Perception and Visuomotor Integration
    14. Electrophysiology of Cognition
    15. Preattentive Human Vision: Link Between Neurophysiology and Psychophysics
    16. Artificial Intelligence: Computational Approach to Vision and Motor Control
    17. Circulatory and Metabolic Correlates of Brain Function in Normal Humans
    18. Language in Humans and Animals: Contribution of Brain Stimulation and Recording
    19. Cerebral Lateralization and Specialization in Human Central Nervous System
    20. Abnormalities of Motor Behavior After Cortical Lesions in Humans
    21. Epilepsy: Insights into Higher Brain Functions in Humans
    22. Schizophrenia: Nature of the Disease Process and its Biological Correlates
    23. Neural Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease
  13. Supplement 6: Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, The Heart
    1. Preface
    2. Ultrastructure of the Heart
    3. Cellular Basis of Physiological and Pathological Myocardial Growth
    4. Cell Physiology and Cell Biology of Myocardial Cell Caveolae
    5. Gap Junctions in the Cardiovascular System
    6. Vagal Preganglionic Neurons Innervating the Heart
    7. Kinetics of the Actin–Myosin Interaction
    8. Modulation of Cardiac Myofilament Activity by Protein Phosphorylation
    9. Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase
    10. Regulation of Cellular Calcium in Cardiac Myocytes
    11. The Cardiac Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger
    12. Regulation of Cardiac Contraction by Calcium
    13. Normal and Abnormal Conduction in the Heart
    14. The Cardiac Ventricular Action Potential
    15. Ion Channels in the Heart: Cellular and Molecular Properties of Cardiac Na, Ca, and K Channels
    16. Molecular Analysis of Voltage-Gated K+ Channel Diversity and Functioning in the Mammalian Heart
    17. Modulation of Electrical Properties by Ions, Hormones, and Drugs
    18. Electrical Heterogeneity in the Heart: Physiological, Pharmacological and Clinical Implications
    19. Newly Cloned Threshold Channels
    20. Ion Channels and Cardiac Arrhythmia in Heart Disease
    21. Systolic and Diastolic Function (Mechanics) of the Intact Heart
    22. A Modern View of Heart Failure: Practical Applications of Cardiovascular Physiology
  14. Supplement 7: Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Vascular Smooth Muscle
    1. Preface
    2. Architecture of the Vessel Wall
    3. Ultrastructure of Vascular Smooth Muscle
    4. Morphogenesis of Vascular Smooth Muscle in Atherosclerosis and Cell Culture
    5. Biochemistry of the Contractile Proteins of Smooth Muscle
    6. Isolated Membranes and Organelles from Vascular Smooth Muscle
    7. Lysosomes in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
    8. Lipid Metabolism of Arterial Smooth Muscle
    9. Cyclic Nucleotides and Blood Vessel Contraction
    10. Chemical Energetics of Vascular Smooth Muscle
    11. High-Energy Phosphates in Smooth Muscle
    12. Content and Fluxes of Electrolytes
    13. Electrophysiology and Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    14. Mechanics of Vascular Smooth Muscle
    15. Circulatory Correlates: Vascular Impedance, Resistance, and Capacity
    16. The Myogenic Response
    17. Physical Factors of Regulation
    18. Effect of Local Metabolic Factors on Vascular Smooth Muscle
    19. Adrenergic Regulation of Vascular Smooth Muscle
    20. Cholinergic and Purinergic Regulation of Blood Vessels
    21. Intrinsic Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in Blood Vessels
    22. Evolution and Diversity of Nonstriated Muscles
  15. Supplement 8: Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow
    1. Preface
    2. Peripheral Circulation: Historical Aspects
    3. Indicator Methods for Measurement of Organ and Tissue Blood Flow
    4. Vascular Mechanics
    5. Pulmonary Circulation
    6. Cerebral Circulation
    7. Renal Circulation
    8. Splanchnic Circulation
    9. Circulation to Female Reproductive Organs
    10. Circulation to Male Reproductive Organs
    11. Circulation to Skin and Adipose Tissue
    12. Circulation to Skeletal Muscle
    13. Pathways of Transport in Bone
    14. Venous System: Physiology of the Capacitance Vessels
    15. Baroreflex Control of Systemic Arterial Pressure and Vascular Bed
    16. Cardiac Mechanoreceptors
    17. Arterial Chemoreceptors
    18. Cardiovascular Reflex Control by Afferent Fibers from Skeletal Muscle Receptors
    19. Thermoreceptors
    20. Interaction of Cardiovascular Reflexes in Circulatory Control
    21. Arterial Baroreflexes in Humans
    22. Cardiopulmonary Baroreflexes in Humans
    23. Peptides and Blood Vessels
    24. Neural and Endocrine Regulation of Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn
    25. Neural Control of Extracellular Volume in the Human and Nonhuman Primate
    26. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Diving in Mammals and Birds
    27. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Isometric Contractions: Static Effort
    28. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Thermal Stress
    29. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Gravitational Stress
  16. Supplement 9: Handbook of Physiology, The Cardiovascular System, Microcirculation
    1. Preface
    2. Introduction
    3. Blood Flow in Microvascular Networks
    4. Physiology and Pathobiology of Microvascular Endothelium
    5. Biology of Nitric Oxide Synthases
    6. Microcirculatory Exchange Function
    7. Microlymphatic Biology
    8. Local Regulation of Microvascular Perfusion
    9. Receptor-Mediated Events in the Microcirculation
    10. Angiogenesis
    11. The Microcirculation in Inflammation
    12. Lymphocyte Trafficking
    13. The Cerebral Microcirculation
    14. Regulation of Coronary Microvascular Resistance in Health and Disease
    15. The Renal Microcirculation
    16. Gastrointestinal and Liver Microcirculations: Roles in Inflammation and Immunity
    17. The Pulmonary Microcirculation
    18. Microcirculation of the Ocular Fundus
    19. Sickle Cell Disease
    20. Pathophysiology of Primary Hypertension
    21. Microvascular Consequences of Obesity and Diabetes
  17. Supplement 10: Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Circulation and Nonrespiratory Functions
    1. Preface to the Section on Respiration
    2. Symbols and Abbreviations
    3. Development and Growth of the Human Lung
    4. Lung Cell Biology
    5. Pulmonary Circulation
    6. Pulmonary Interstitial Spaces and Lymphatics
    7. Oxygen Utilization and Toxicity in the Lungs
    8. Glucose and Intermediary Metabolism of the Lungs
    9. Protein Turnover in the Lungs
    10. Lipid Synthesis and Surfactant Turnover in the Lungs
    11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Other Amines in the Lungs
    12. Processing of Angiotensin and Other Peptides by the Lungs
    13. Lung Metabolism of Eicosanoids: Prostaglandins, Prostacyclin, Thromboxane, and Leukotrienes
    14. Lipoproteins and Lipoprotein Lipase
    15. Regulation of Airway Secretions, Ion Transport, and Water Movement
    16. Macrophages in the Respiratory Tract
    17. Function-Structure Correlations in Cilia from Mammalian Respiratory Tract
    18. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis
    19. Platelet-Blood Vessel Interactions
    20. Preface
  18. Supplement 11: Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Control of Breathing
    1. Preface
    2. Brain Stem Mechanisms for Generation and Control of Breathing Pattern
    3. Forebrain and Midbrain Influence on Respiration
    4. Oscillation, Gating, and Memory in the Respiratory Control System
    5. Acid-Base Balance in Cerebral Fluids
    6. Ventilation and Brain Metabolism
    7. Brain Blood Flow and Control of Breathing
    8. Hormones and Neurochemicals in the Regulation of Breathing
    9. Upper Airway Motor Systems
    10. Initiation and Control of Chemoreceptor Activity in the Carotid Body
    11. Reflex Responses to Chemoreceptor Stimulation
    12. Reflexes from the Upper Respiratory Tract
    13. Reflexes Evoked from Tracheobronchial Tree and Lungs
    14. Reflexes from Respiratory Muscles and Costovertebral Joints
    15. Afferent Inputs to Breathing: Respiratory Sensation
    16. Integration of Respiratory Responses to Changes in Alveolar Partial Pressures of CO2 and O2 and in Arterial pH
    17. Interactions Between Respiration and Circulation
    18. Respiratory Control During Exercise
    19. Control of Breathing in the Fetus and the Newborn
    20. Control of Breathing During Sleep
    21. Effects of Temperature on Breathing
    22. Ventilatory Control at High Altitude
    23. Abnormalities in Respiratory Rhythm
    24. Breathing Responses to Imposed Mechanical Loads
    25. Control of Breathing in Diseases of the Respiratory Tract and Lungs
    26. Anesthesia and the Control of Ventilation
    27. Control of Breathing in Birds
    28. Comparative Mammalian Respiratory Control
    29. Control of Breathing in Ectothermic Vertebrates
  19. Supplement 12: Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Mechanics of Breathing
    1. Preface
    2. History of Respiratory Mechanics
    3. Principles of Measurement: Applications to Pressure, Volume, and Flow
    4. Solid Mechanics
    5. Aerodynamic Theory
    6. Wave-Speed and Viscous Flow Limitation
    7. Form and Function of the Upper Airways and Larynx
    8. Morphometry of Airways
    9. Functional Morphology of Lung Parenchyma
    10. Static Behavior of the Respiratory System
    11. Dynamics of Respiration
    12. Oscillation Mechanics of the Respiratory System
    13. Respiratory Mechanics in Children
    14. Lung Recoil: Elastic and Rheological Properties
    15. Micromechanics of the Lung
    16. Distribution of Stresses Within the Lung
    17. Alveolar Surface Tension and Lung Surfactant
    18. Mechanical Properties of Airway Smooth Muscle
    19. Pressure-Flow Relationships in the Lungs
    20. Forced Expiration
    21. Cough
    22. Collateral Flow
    23. Development, Growth, and Aging of the Lung
    24. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Respiratory Muscles
    25. Methods for Study of the Chest Wall
    26. Passive Mechanical Properties of the Chest Wall
    27. Action of the Respiratory Muscles
    28. Respiratory Muscle Coordination
    29. Respiratory Muscle Energetics
    30. Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue
    31. Mechanics of the Pleural Space
    32. Static Distribution of Lung Volumes
    33. Dynamic Distribution of Gas Flow
    34. Modifications of Breathing for Phonation
    35. Breathing During Exercise
    36. Relationship Between Neuromuscular Respiratory Drive and Ventilatory Output
    37. Mechanical Interaction of Respiration and Circulation
    38. Lung Mechanics in Disease
    39. Autonomic Factors in Hyperreactivity of Airway Smooth Muscle
    40. Thermal Factors in Respiratory Mechanics
    41. Chemical Mediators of Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions
    42. Postjunctional Factors in Airway Smooth Muscle Hyperresponsiveness
    43. Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness
    44. Respiratory Mechanics During Anesthesia and Mechanical Ventilation
    45. Tests of Mechanical Function
  20. Supplement 13: Handbook of Physiology, The Respiratory System, Gas Exchange
    1. Preface
    2. An Overview of Gas Exchange
    3. Laws of Physics Pertaining to Gas Exchange
    4. Diffusion of Gases
    5. Diffusion and Convection in Intrapulmonary Gas Mixing
    6. Diffusion of Gases Across the Alveolar Membrane
    7. Facilitated Diffusion of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
    8. Ventilation: Total, Alveolar, and Dead Space
    9. Phylogeny of the Gas-Exchange System: Red Cell Function
    10. Blood Oxygen Transport
    11. Carbon Dioxide Transport
    12. Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships
    13. Diffusing-Capacity Heterogeneity
    14. Measurement of Cardiac Output by Alveolar Gas Exchange
    15. Peripheral Inert-Gas Exchange
    16. Gas Exchange in Body Cavities
    17. Gas Exchange in Exercise
    18. Gas Exchange in Pregnancy
    19. Respiratory Gas Exchange in the Placenta
    20. Gas Exchange in Hypoxia, Apnea, and Hyperoxia
    21. Gas Exchange in Acid-Base Disturbances
    22. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity
  21. Supplement 14: Handbook of Physiology, Environmental Physiology
    1. Preface
    2. Introduction
    3. Adaptations: Some General Characteristics
    4. Physical Forces, Sensory Reception, and Response to the Environment
    5. Interplay of Behavioral and Physiological Mechanisms in Adaptation
    6. Mechanisms of Heat Exchange: Biophysics and Physiology
    7. Peripheral Thermosensors
    8. Hypothalamic Neurons Regulating Body Temperature
    9. Interaction of Body Temperatures in Control of Thermoregulatory Effector Mechanisms
    10. Evidence for Roles of Brain Peptides in Thermoregulation
    11. Thermoregulatory Responses to Acute Exercise-Heat Stress and Heat Acclimation
    12. Body Fluid Balance During Heat Stress in Humans
    13. Cardiovascular Adjustments to Heat Stress
    14. Endocrinological and Metabolic Responses to Acute and Chronic Heat Exposures
    15. Heat Stress and Behavior
    16. Estivation
    17. Limitation of Heat Tolerance
    18. Homeostatic Responses to Acute Cold Exposure: Thermogenic Responses in Birds and Mammals
    19. Human Thermoregulatory Responses to Acute Cold Stress with Special Reference to Water Immersion
    20. Thermogenic Responses to Prolonged Cold Exposure: Birds and Mammals
    21. Homeostatic Responses to Prolonged Cold Exposure: Human Cold Acclimatization
    22. Neural and Hormonal Responses to Prolonged Cold Exposure
    23. Behavioral Thermoregulation in the Cold
    24. Torpor and Hibernation in Mammals: Metabolic, Physiological, and Biochemical Adaptations
    25. Hibernation in Mammals: Central Nervous System Function
    26. Responses to Seasonal Change in Polar Mammals
    27. Limits of Tolerance to Hypothermia
    28. Central Regulation of Adaptive Responses to Heat and Cold
    29. Ontogenetic and Adaptive Adjustments in the Thermoregulatory System
    30. Modeling Homeostatic Responses to Heat and Cold
    31. The Cardiovascular System in Microgravity
    32. Respiratory System in Microgravity
    33. The Skeleton and its Adaptation to Gravity
    34. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Actual and Simulated Spaceflight
    35. Adaptation of the Vestibular System to Microgravity
    36. Radiation in Microgravity
    37. Effect of Spaceflight on Lymphocyte Function and Immunity
    38. Exercise and Adaptation to Microgravity Environments
    39. Renal, Endocrine, and Hemodynamic Effects of Water Immersion in Humans
    40. Head-out Water Immersion: Animal Studies
    41. The Physiology of Bed Rest
    42. Adaptation to Acceleration Environments
    43. Hyperbaria/Diving: Introduction
    44. Hyperbaria: Breath-hold Diving
    45. Gas Physiology in Diving
    46. Mixed-gas Saturation Diving
    47. Diving physiology of the Weddell seal
    48. Evolutionary Aspects of Atmospheric Oxygen and Organisms
    49. Tissue Capacity for Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation and its Adaptation to Stress
    50. Metabolic Defense Adaptations to Hypobaric Hypoxia in Man
    51. Hypoxia, Erythropoietin Gene Expression, and Erythropoiesis
    52. Morphologic and Metabolic Response to Chronic Hypoxia: the Muscle System
    53. Peripheral Chemoreceptors and Their Sensory Neurons in Chronic States of Hypo- and Hyperoxygenation
    54. Ventilatory Responses to Acute and Chronic Hypoxia
    55. The Cardiovascular System at High Altitude
    56. Endocrine Adaptation to Hypoxia
    57. Body Fluid and Energy Metabolism at High Altitude
    58. Brain Hypoxia: Metabolic and Ventilatory Depression
    59. Physiology of Extreme Altitude
    60. Circadian Rhythms
    61. Sleep, Thermoregulation, and Circadian Rhythms
    62. The Relationship Between Food and Sleep
    63. Human Adaptation to Energy Undernutrition
    64. Physiological Responses of Mammals to Overnutrition
    65. Effects of Altered Vitamin and Mineral Nutritional Status on Temperature Regulation and Thermogenesis in the Cold
    66. Nutrition and Exercise in Adverse Environments
    67. Intestinal Adaptation to Environmental Stress
    68. Adaptation to the Microbial Environment
    69. The place of Behavior in Physiology
    70. Neuroimmunomodulation: Neuroimmune Interactions with the Environment
  22. Supplement 15: Handbook of Physiology, Adipose Tissue
    1. Preface
    2. Introduction—a perspective
    3. Energy storage
    4. Relative importance of different tissues in the synthesis of fatty acids
    5. Comparative anatomy of adipose tissue1
    6. Adipose tissue in migratory birds
    7. Metabolic pathways in the insect fat body1
    8. Fat metabolism in fish
    9. The physiological role of brown adipose tissue1
    10. The development of adipose tissue
    11. Histogenesis1
    12. The fine structure of adipose tissues
    13. Morphology of adipose tissue: a microscopic anatomy of fat
    14. Pathological anatomy of adipose tissue1
    15. Lipid components of adipose tissue
    16. Fatty substances containing ether linkages
    17. Fatty acid patterns in human adipose tissue
    18. Structural sugars in adipose tissue
    19. Distribution of adrenergic nerve fibers in brown and white adipose tissue
    20. Structural aspects of adipose tissue: A summary attempting to synthesize the information contained in the preceding chapters
    21. Fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue
    22. Triglyceride metabolism
    23. Enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in adipose tissue
    24. Glyceride biosynthesis, glyceride breakdown and glycogen breakdown in adipose tissue: mechanisms and regulation
    25. Pathways of glucose metabolism
    26. Pathways of glucose metabolism II
    27. Fructose metabolism in adipose tissue from normal and diabetic rats1
    28. The clearing factor lipase activity of adipose tissue
    29. Adipose tissue lipases II
    30. Hormone-sensitive lipolytic activity of adipose tissue1
    31. Glycogen metabolism in adipose tissue
    32. Adipose tissue in diabetes
    33. Regulation of fatty acid release with particular reference to pituitary factors
    34. Release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue in vitro in relation to rates of triglyceride synthesis and degradation
    35. Lipid peroxidation1
    36. Net gas exchange and oxygen consumption
    37. Conversion of amino acids to fatty acids
    38. Amino acid and protein metabolism1
    39. Regulation of fatty acid esterification in adipose tissue incubated in vitro
    40. Effect of feeding on fatty acid synthesis1
    41. Effects of aging on the composition and metabolism of adipose tissue in the rat
    42. Effect of biologically active peptides on adipose tissue
    43. Comparative physiology of adipose tissue in different sites and in different species
    44. Selective labeling of adipose tissue in vivo
    45. Perfusion of isolated adipose tissue: FFA release and blood flow in rat parametrial fat body
    46. Metabolism of human adipose tissue in vitro
    47. The metabolism of isolated fat cells
    48. Metabolism of isolated adipose tissue: a summary
    49. Chylomicron metabolism: uptake and metabolism by perfused adipose tissue1
    50. Metabolism of lipids in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins
    51. Particulate lipid components in plasma
    52. Effect of dietary and endocrine factors on adipose tissue growth1
    53. The pituitary gland and the mobilization of fat
    54. The adipokinetic property of hypophyseal peptides and catecholamines: a problem in comparative endocrinology1
    55. In vivo and in vitro adipokinetic effects of corticotropin and related peptides1
    56. Lipid-mobilizing activity during fasting
    57. Inhibition of lipid mobilization
    58. Autonomic nervous system and adipose tissue
    59. Autonomic nervous system and adipose tissue
    60. Action of lipomobilizing hormones on adipose tissue
    61. Psychogenic effects on lipid mobilization
    62. Adiposity
    63. Some physiological and clinical implications of lipid mobilization from adipose tissue1
    64. Metabolism of adipose tissue in experimental obesity
    65. The measurement of human adipose tissue mass
    66. Lipid composition and metabolism of subcutaneous adipose tissue and lipoma of man
    67. Lipodystrophy
    68. Effect of adipose tissue extracts on the insulin activity of human serum
    69. Regulation of adipose tissue metabolism within the intact organism: a summary
    70. Bibliography
  23. Supplement 16: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Motility and Circulation
    1. Gastrointestinal Physiology, 1895–1975: Motility
    2. Structure of intestinal musculature
    3. Distribution and exchange of electrolytes in gastrointestinal muscle cells
    4. Electrophysiology of dissociated gastrointestinal muscle cells
    5. Electrophysiology of the gastric musculature
    6. Electrophysiology of the intestinal musculature
    7. Electrophysiology of colonic smooth muscle
    8. Mechanical properties of gastrointestinal smooth muscle
    9. Enteric neurons in culture
    10. Interstitial cells of Cajal
    11. Identification of transmitters of functionally defined enteric neurons
    12. Neurotransmitter release in the enteric nervous system
    13. Neuromuscular transmission in the gastrointestinal tract
    14. Electrical and synaptic behavior of enteric neurons
    15. Physiology of prevertebral ganglia in mammals with special reference to inferior mesenteric ganglion
    16. Sensory afferents from the gastrointestinal tract
    17. Control centers in the central nervous system for regulating gastrointestinal motility
    18. Central nervous system mechanisms in deglutition and emesis
    19. Pharmacology of drugs acting on gastrointestinal motility
    20. Pharmacology of neuroendocrine peptides
    21. In vivo myoelectric activity: methods, analysis, and interpretation
    22. Esophageal motility
    23. Determinants of gastric emptying and transit in the small intestine
    24. Colonic motility
    25. Villous motility
    26. Sphincteric function
    27. Motor function of anorectum and pelvic floor musculature
    28. Motility of the biliary system
    29. Pharmacology of biliary tract
    30. Parasite infections and gastrointestinal motility
    31. Alterations of small intestine motility by bacteria and their enterotoxins
    32. Motor and myoelectric activity associated with vomiting, regurgitation, and nausea
    33. Adaptation to surgical perturbations
    34. Gastrointestinal motor functions in ruminants
    35. Avian gastrointestinal motor function
    36. Histoanatomy and ultrastructure of vasculature of alimentary tract
    37. Gastrointestinal blood flow-measuring techniques
    38. Physiology of gastric circulation
    39. Microcirculation of the intestinal mucosa
    40. Gastrointestinal circulation and motor function
    41. Hepatic circulation
    42. Circulation of the pancreas and salivary glands
    43. Neonatal intestinal circulation
    44. Electrophysiological and neuromuscular relationships in extramural blood vessels
    45. Neuromuscular transmission in intramural blood vessels
    46. Neurohormonal control of gastrointestinal blood flow
    47. Pathophysiology of gastrointestinal circulation
    48. Gastrointestinal lymphatics
  24. Supplement 17: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Neural and Endocrine Biology
    1. Molecular Biology of Gut Peptides
    2. Sequences of Natural Gut Peptides, Related Peptides, and Their Precursors
    3. Posttranslational Processing of Gut Peptides
    4. Endocrine Cells of the Gut
    5. Structure and Neurochemical Organization of the Enteric Nervous System
    6. Distribution of Gut Peptides
    7. Identification of Physiological Function of Gut Peptides
    8. Comparative Neuroendocrinology of Gut Peptides
    9. Receptors for Gut Peptides and Other Secretagogues on Pancreatic Acinar Cells
    10. Gastric Mucosal Receptors
    11. Peptide Receptors in Intestinal Epithelium
    12. Liver Receptors for Regulatory Peptides
    13. Receptors for Gut Peptides on Smooth Muscle Cells of the Gut
    14. Trophic Effects of Gut Peptides
    15. Gastrin
    16. Cholecystokinin
    17. Secretin
    18. Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
    19. Somatostatin
    20. Gut Glucagon
    21. Pancreatic Polypeptide Family: Pancreatic Polypeptide, Neuropeptide Y, and Peptide YY
    22. Motilin
    23. Neurotensin
    24. Bombesin-like Peptides
    25. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
    26. Opioid Peptides of The Gut
    27. Gut Tachykinins
    28. Newly Discovered Gut Peptides
  25. Supplement 18: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Salivary, Gastric, Pancreatic, and Hepatobiliary Secretion
    1. Preface
    2. Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion by Salivary Glands
    3. Electrophysiology of Salivary and Pancreatic Acinar Cells
    4. Calcium Signaling System in Salivary Glands
    5. Functional Differentiation of Salivary Glands
    6. Cellular Regulation of Amylase Secretion by the Parotid Gland
    7. Salivary Mucin Secretion
    8. Secretory Membranes and the Exocrine Storage Compartment
    9. Neural and Hormonal Control of Gastric Secretion
    10. Inhibition of Gastric Acid Secretion
    11. Electrophysiology of Gastric Ion Transport
    12. Cell Biology of Hydrochloric Acid Secretion
    13. Biochemistry of Gastric Acid Secretion: H+-K+-ATPase
    14. Intracellular Activation Events for Parietal Cell Hydrochloric Acid Secretion
    15. Cellular Basis of Pepsinogen Secretion
    16. The Gastric Mucosal Barrier
    17. Secretion of Bicarbonate by Gastric and Duodenal Mucosa
    18. Immunological Probes of Gastrointestinal Secretion
    19. Functional Development of Stomach
    20. Gastrointestinal Mucus
    21. Pancreatic Secretion of Electrolytes and Water
    22. Cellular Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion
    23. Signaling Transduction in Hormone- and Neurotransmitter-Induced Enzyme Secretion from the Exocrine Pancreas
    24. Regulation of Digestive Reactions by the Pancreas
    25. Cellular Compartmentation and Protein Processing in the Exocrine Pancreas
    26. Selective Regulation of Gene Expression in the Exocrine Pancreas
    27. Long-Term Regulation of Pancreatic Function Studied in Vitro
    28. Structural and Secretory Polarity in the Pancreatic Acinar Cell
    29. Overview of Bile Secretion
    30. Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids
    31. Cellular Mechanisms of Hepatic Fluid and Electrolyte Transport
    32. Physical Chemistry of Bile
    33. Pathways and Functions of Biliary Protein Secretion
    34. Hepatocyte Lysosomes in Intracellular Digestion and Biliary Secretion
    35. Hepatic Transport of Organic Solutes
    36. Transport and Metabolism in the Hepatobiliary System
  26. Supplement 19: Handbook of Physiology, The Gastrointestinal System, Intestinal Absorption and Secretion
    1. Preface
    2. Principles of Membrane Transport
    3. Biology Of Sodium-Absorbing Epithelial Cells: Dawning of a New Era
    4. Functional Morphology of Epithelium of the Small Intestine
    5. Functional Morphology of the Large Intestine
    6. Mechanism of Fluid Transport by Epithelia
    7. Enterocyte Cytoskeleton: Its Structure and Function
    8. Use of Cultured Cell Lines in Studies of Intestinal Cell Differentiation and Function
    9. Ion Transport Across the Large Intestine
    10. Comparative Physiology of Colonic Electrolyte Transport
    11. Ion Transport Across Mammalian Small Intestine
    12. Salt and Water Transport by Gallbladder Epithelium
    13. Inorganic Phosphate Absorption in Small Intestine
    14. Transport of Calcium
    15. Iron Absorption
    16. Transport of Weak Electrolytes
    17. Intestinal Transport of Bile Acids
    18. Molecular Biology of Na+/Glucose Symport
    19. Dietary Protein Processing: Intraluminal and Enterocyte Surface Events
    20. Intestinal Transport of Water-Soluble Vitamins
    21. Gastric Intrinsic Factor and Cobalamin Absorption
    22. Immunoglobulin a Secretion
    23. Luminal Events in Gastrointestinal Lipid Digestion
    24. Enterocyte Lipid Absorption and Secretion
    25. Neurohormonal Control of Fluid and Electrolyte Transport in Intestinal Mucosa
    26. Immunophysiology of Intestinal Electrolyte Transport
  27. Supplement 20: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Cellular Endocrinology
    1. Foreword
    2. Preface
    3. Cell Biology of Secretion
    4. Synthesis, Internalization, Recycling, and Regulation of Peptide Hormone Receptors
    5. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Polypeptide Hormones by Vascular Endothelium
    6. Receptor Identification and Characterization
    7. Mediation of Secretory Cell Function by G Protein—Coupled Receptors
    8. G Protein-Coupled Receptors and the G Protein Family
    9. Regulation of G Protein–Coupled Receptors
    10. Mammalian Gs-Stimulated Adenylyl Cyclases
    11. Calcium Signaling Systems
    12. Protein Kinases and Phosphatases in Cellular Signaling
    13. Phospholipid-Derived Second Messengers
    14. Membrane Receptor–Linked Disease States
    15. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Regulation of Gene Transcription
    16. Targeted Delivery of Hormones to Tissues by Plasma Proteins
    17. Steroid Hormone Receptor Families
    18. The Roles of Cytochromes P-450 in the Regulation of Steroidogenesis
    19. Cellular Localization of Receptors Mediating the Actions of Steroid Hormones
    20. Autocrine/Paracrine Intermediates in Hormonal Action and Modulation of Cellular Responses to Hormones
    21. Role of Pulsatility in Hormonal Action
    22. Apoptosis
  28. Supplement 21: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, The Endocrine Pancreas and Regulation of Metabolism
    1. Preface
    2. General Introduction: Reminiscences and Reflections on Fifty Years of the Endocrine Pancreas
    3. Insulin Gene Transcription: Factors Involved in Cell Type–Specific and Glucose-Regulated Expression in Islet β Cells are Also Essential During Pancreatic Development
    4. Biosynthesis of Insulin
    5. Electrophysiology of the β Cell and Mechanisms of Inhibition of Insulin Release
    6. Substrate Control of Insulin Release
    7. Insulin and Glucagon Secretion in vivo and its Neural Control
    8. Insulin Degradation and Insulin-Degrading Enzyme
    9. Glucagon and Glucagon-like Peptide Production and Degradation
    10. Production, Action, and Degradation of Somatostatin
    11. Amylin and Related Proteins: Physiology and Pathophysiology
    12. Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase
    13. Molecular Aspects of Insulin Signaling
    14. Glucagon Signal-Transduction Mechanisms
    15. Regulation of Glucose Transporters by Insulin and Exercise: Cellular Effects and Implications for Diabetes
    16. Regulation of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis and Lipolysis
    17. The Prevention and Correction of Hypoglycemia
    18. Obesity
    19. Regulation of Protein Metabolism in Muscle
    20. Regulation of Protein Metabolism in Liver
    21. Regulation of Glucose Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle
    22. Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism
    23. Regulation of Gluconeogenesis in Liver
    24. Regulation of Ketogenesis in Liver
    25. The Pancreas and Lipoprotein Metabolism
    26. Genetic Regulation of Glucose Metabolism
    27. Insulin and Protein Metabolism
    28. Control of Glucose Production in vivo by Insulin and Glucagon
    29. Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Uptake
    30. Regulation of Muscle Glucose Uptake In Vivo
    31. The Metabolic Actions of Growth Hormone
    32. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Islet Cell Hormone Metabolic Actions
    33. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and the Endocrine Pancreas
    34. Effects of Pregnancy on Metabolism
    35. The Aging Pancreas: Effects of Aging on Insulin Secretion and Action
    36. Sepsis-induced Changes in Pancreatic Hormone Secretion
    37. Type I Diabetes Mellitus (Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
    38. Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes
    39. Insulin Resistance, Compensatory Hyperinsulinemia, and Coronary Heart Disease: Syndrome X Revisited
    40. Starvation
  29. Supplement 22: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Endocrine Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Balance
    1. Preface
    2. Renin
    3. Angiotensinogen
    4. Molecular and Physiological Aspects of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme
    5. Angiotensins
    6. Aldosterone
    7. Endocrine Hypertension
    8. Endocrine Control of Sodium Balance
    9. Endocrine Control of Potassium Balance
    10. Tissue Kallikrein–Kinin System
    11. Natriuretic Peptides
    12. Physiological Responses to Natriuretic Hormones
    13. Antidiuretic Hormone: Synthesis and Release
    14. Renal Actions of Vasopressin
    15. Endocrine Control of Water Balance
    16. Endocrine Control of Acid-Base Balance
    17. Parathyroid Hormone and Polyhormones: Production and Export
    18. Roles of Parathyroid Hormone and Parathyroid Hormone–Related Peptide in Calcium Metabolism and Bone Biology: Biological Actions and Receptors
    19. Vitamin D
  30. Supplement 23: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms
    1. Preface
    2. Synthesis, Storage, and Secretion of Adrenal Medullary Hormones: Physiology and Pathophysiology
    3. Sympathetic Nervous System Physiology and Pathophysiology in Coping with the Environment
    4. Catecholamines in the Brain and Responses to Environmental Challenges
    5. Actions of Corticotropin on the Adrenal Cortex: Biochemistry and Cell Biology
    6. Proopiomelanocortin Synthesis and Cell-Specific Processing
    7. Regulation and Actions of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
    8. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Brain: Executive Gating of Neuroendocrine and Functional Outflow
    9. Coping with Danger: The Neural Basis of Defensive Behavior and Fearful Feelings
    10. Neurobiology of Interpreting and Responding to Stressful Events: Paradigmatic Role of the Hippocampus
    11. Chronic Stress and Energy Balance: Role of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
    12. Adrenocortical Responses to Stress and Their Modulation in Free-Living Vertebrates
    13. Development of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and the Stress Response
    14. Development of Individual Differences in Behavioral and Endocrine Responses to Stress: Role of the Postnatal Environment
    15. Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Actions in Stress and Brain Aging
    16. Roles of Sleep-Wake and Dark-Light Cycles in the Control of Endocrine, Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Cognitive Function
    17. Hormones, Cytokines, and Sleep
    18. Regional Neural Regulation of Immunity: Anatomy and Function
    19. Role of Endogenous Glucocorticoids in Immune System Function: Regulation and Counterregulation
    20. Interactions Between the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Immune System During Viral Infection: Pathways for Environmental Effects on Disease Expression
    21. Regulation of Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases
    22. Immunophysiology: The Interaction of Hormones, Lymphohemopoietic Cytokines, and the Neuroimmune Axis
    23. Environmental Factors and Disease: Stress and Cancer
    24. Physiological and Pathophysiological Implications of Social Stress in Mammals
    25. Social Ordering and Health
  31. Supplement 24: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Hormonal Control of Growth
    1. Preface
    2. The Growth Process
    3. Somatic Growth and its Regulation
    4. Hormonal Regulation of Growth and Development of Nonmammalian Vertebrates
    5. Hormones and Growth in Domestic Animals
    6. Hormonal Regulation of Growth and Metabolic Effects of Growth Hormone
    7. Structure-Function Relationships of Growth Hormone and Other Members of the Growth Hormone Gene Family
    8. Regulation of Growth Hormone Gene Expression
    9. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: Discovery, Regulation, and Actions
    10. Somatostatin
    11. Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides
    12. Feedback Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion
    13. The Growth Hormone Secretory Pattern and Statural Growth
    14. The Growth Hormone Receptor
    15. Molecular Events in Growth Hormone–Receptor Interaction and Signaling
    16. The Somatomedin Hypothesis of Growth Hormone Action
    17. The Dual Effector Theory
    18. The Regulation of Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism by Growth Hormone
    19. Insulin-Like Growth Factors: Gene Structure and Regulation
    20. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
    21. Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin-like Growth Factor I Receptor Function: Implications for Normal Physiology and Pathological States
    22. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Actions on Somatic Growth
    23. The Regulation of Growth by Insulinlike Growth Factor II
    24. Thyroid Hormone Receptors
    25. Regulation of Gene Expression by Thyroid Hormones: Relation to Growth and Development
    26. Insulin as a Growth-Promoting Hormone
  32. Supplement 25: Handbook of Physiology, Renal Physiology
    1. Preface
    2. Ultrastructure of Glomerulus and Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
    3. Functional Ultrastructure of the Proximal Tubule
    4. Morphology of the Loop of Henle, Distal Tubule, and Collecting Duct
    5. Structural Correlates of Transport in Distal Tubule and Collecting Duct Segments
    6. Clearance Techniques
    7. Renal Micropuncture Techniques
    8. Ion and Water Transport in Toad Urinary Epithelia in Vitro
    9. Cellular Mechanisms of H+ and HCO3 transport in tight urinary epithelia
    10. Evaluation of Function in Single Segments of Isolated Renal Blood Vessels, Nephrons, and Collecting Ducts
    11. Application of Tissue Culture Techniques to Study of Renal Tubular Epithelia
    12. Comparative Physiology of the Kidney
    13. The Kidney During Development
    14. Glomerular Filtration
    15. Principles of Electrolyte Transport Across Plasma Membranes of Renal Tubular Cells
    16. Mechanisms of Fluid Transport Across Renal Tubules
    17. Renal Ion Channels
    18. Chloride Transport
    19. Renal Acidification: Cellular Mechanisms of Tubular Transport and Regulation
    20. Renal Potassium Transport
    21. Nephron Heterogeneity
    22. Control of Sodium Excretion: An Integrative Approach
    23. Renal Acidification: Integrated Tubular Responses
    24. Renal Ammonia Production and Excretion
    25. Neural Control of Renal Function
    26. Renal Blood Flow
    27. Molecular Mechanisms of Vasopressin Action in the Kidney
    28. Urinary Concentration and Dilution: Physiology
    29. Genetic Models of Diabetes Insipidus
    30. Renal Handling of Urea
    31. Urinary Concentration and Dilution: Models
    32. Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System and the Renal Regulation of Sodium, Potassium, and Blood Pressure Homeostasis
    33. Corticosteroids and the Kidney
    34. Atrial Natriuretic Factor
    35. Tubuloglomerular Feedback Control of Renal Vascular Resistance
    36. Renal Prostaglandins and Other Eicosanoids
    37. Renal Tubular Transport of Calcium
    38. Phosphate Homeostasis
    39. Vitamin D Endocrine System and Calcium and Phosphorus Homeostasis
    40. Kidney and Bone: Physiological and Pathophysiological Relationships
    41. The Physiology of Renal Magnesium Handling
    42. Tubular Transport of Amino Acids and Small Peptides
    43. Mendelian Phenotypes as “Probes” of Renal Transport Systems for Amino Acids and Phosphate
    44. Glucose Transport in the Renal Proximal Tubule
    45. Renal Handling of Proteins and Polypeptides
    46. Renal Plasma Membranes: Isolation, General Properties, and Biochemical Components
    47. Biochemical Characterization of Individual Nephron Segments
    48. Tubular Transport of Monocarboxylates, Krebs Cycle Intermediates, and Inorganic Sulfate
    49. Renal Excretion and Tubular Transport of Organic Anions and Cations
    50. Renal Metabolism: Integrated Responses
    51. Effects of Diuretics on Renal Function
    52. Regulation of Erythropoietin Production
    53. A Standard Nomenclature for Structures of the Kidney
  33. Supplement 26: Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents
    1. Preface
    2. Effects of Noise Exposure on Auditory Sensitivity
    3. Pathophysiological Responses of the Auditory Organ to Excessive Sound
    4. Extraauditory Effects of Acoustic Stimulation
    5. Control of Body Temperature
    6. Heat Exchange Between Human Skin Surface and Thermal Environment
    7. Human Tolerance to Hot Climates
    8. Microwave Radiation
    9. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Mammalian Cells
    10. Chemical Agents in Air
    11. Food Additives and Contaminants
    12. Chemical Agents from Occupational Sources
    13. Medicines and Drugs as Environmental Agents
    14. Chemical Agents in Cigarette Smoke
    15. Regional Deposition of Particles in the Human Respiratory Tract
    16. Radioactive Materials — Determinants of Dose to the Respiratory Tract
    17. Clearance Mechanisms in the Respiratory Tract
    18. Tissue and Cellular Reactions to Particles, Fibers, and Aerosols Retained after Inhalation
    19. Immunological Reactions to Inhaled Physical and Chemical Agents
    20. Permeability of the Skin
    21. Cutaneous Allergic Response
    22. Cutaneous Carcinogenesis: Metabolic Interaction of Chemical Carcinogens with Skin
    23. Gastroenterologic Response to Environmental Agents — Absorption and Interactions
    24. Metabolism of Foreign Substances in the Gastrointestinal Tract
    25. Retention and Excretion Kinetics of Chemical Agents
    26. Determinants of Xenobiotic Transport at Biological Barriers
    27. Hepatic and Extrahepatic Mixed-Function Oxidases
    28. Hydrolytic Transformation of Environmental Pollutants
    29. Biochemistry and Significance of Transferase Reactions in the Metabolism of Foreign Chemicals
    30. Bone Storage and Release
    31. Accumulation and Release of Chemicals by Adipose Tissue
    32. Mechanisms of Renal Excretion of Environmental Agents
    33. Renal Injury and Urinary Excretion
    34. Alimentary Excretion of Environmental Agents and Unnatural Compounds
    35. Biliary Excretion
    36. Pulmonary Excretion of Absorbed Gases
    37. Altered Permeability of Cell Membranes
    38. Formation of Reactive Metabolites of Foreign Compounds and their Covalent Binding to Cellular Constituents
    39. Lipid Peroxidation: A Specific form of Cellular Injury
    40. Intracellular Digestion: Lysosomes and Cellular Injury
    41. Action of Environmental Agents on Nucleic Acids and Their Metabolism
    42. Altered Protein Synthesis
  34. Supplement 27: Handbook of Physiology, Skeletal Muscle
    1. Preface
    2. Surface and Internal Morphology of Skeletal Muscle
    3. Structure and Function of Membrane Systems of Skeletal Muscle Cells
    4. Quantitative Ultrastructure of Mammalian Skeletal Muscle
    5. Immunological Techniques in Fluorescence and Electron Microscopy Applied to Skeletal Muscle Fibers
    6. Structure of Vertebrate Striated Muscle as Determined by X-ray-Diffraction Studies
    7. Force Generation and Shortening in Skeletal Muscle
    8. Energetics of Muscle Contraction
    9. Chemical Mechanism of Myosin-Catalyzed ATP Hydrolysis
    10. Conformational Changes and Molecular Dynamics of Myosin
    11. Electrical Properties of Striated Muscle
    12. Impedance Measurement of the Electrical Structure of Skeletal Muscle
    13. Inward Spread of Activation in Twitch Skeletal Muscle Fibers
    14. Optical Studies of Excitation-Contraction Coupling Using Voltage-Sensitive and Calcium-Sensitive Probes
    15. Pharmacological Investigations of Excitation-Contraction Coupling
    16. Mechanism of Ca2+ Transport by Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    17. Physiology of Insect Flight Muscle
    18. Emergence of Specialization in Skeletal Muscle
    19. Alterations in Myofibril Size and Structure During Growth, Exercise, and Changes in Environmental Temperature
    20. Skeletal Muscle Adaptability: Significance for Metabolism and Performance
    21. Diseases of Skeletal Muscle
  35. Supplement 28: Handbook of Physiology, Aging
    1. Aging: Current Concepts
    2. Design and Analysis of Aging Studies
    3. Animal Models
    4. Cell Culture as a Model
    5. Human Studies
    6. Energy Utilization
    7. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    8. Aging, Fat Metabolism, and Adiposity
    9. Gene Expression and Protein Degradation
    10. Aging of Long-Lived Proteins: Extracellular Matrix (Collagens, Elastins, Proteoglycans) and Lens Crystallins
    11. Skin
    12. Human Nervous System
    13. Maintenance and Regulation in Brain of Neurotransmission, Trophic Factors, and Immune Responses
    14. Taste and Smell
    15. The Potential Role of Selected Endocrine Systems in Aging Processes
    16. Bone
    17. Cardiovascular System
    18. Respiratory System
    19. Renal and Urinary Tract Function
    20. The Gastrointestinal Tract
    21. Immune System
    22. Loss of Integration and Resiliency with Age: A Dissipative Destruction
    23. Putative Interventions
    24. Exercise
    25. Preface
  36. Supplement 29: Handbook of Physiology, Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems
    1. Preface
    2. The Physiological Control of Motoneuron Activity
    3. Neuromuscular Adaptation
    4. Proprioceptive Feedback and Movement Regulation
    5. Kinesthesia: Roles for Afferent Signals and Motor Commands
    6. Neural Control of Stereotypic Limb Movements
    7. The Corticospinal System: A Structural Framework for the Central Control of Movement
    8. Postural Orientation and Equilibrium
    9. Biomechanical Insights into Neural Control of Movement
    10. Central Neural Control of Respiration and Circulation During Exercise
    11. Reflexes Controlling Circulatory, Ventilatory and Airway Responses to Exercise
    12. Airway, Lung, and Respiratory Muscle Function During Exercise
    13. Determinants of Gas Exchange and Acid–Base Balance During Exercise
    14. Pulmonary Hemodynamics and Fluid Exchange in the Lungs During Exercise
    15. Lactate Transport and Exchange During Exercise
    16. Cardiac Output During Exercise: Contributions of the Cardiac, Circulatory, and Respiratory Systems
    17. Control of Blood Flow to Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle During Exercise
    18. Integration of Cardiovascular Control Systems in Dynamic Exercise
    19. Cellular Processes Integrating the Metabolic Response to Exercise
    20. Control of Glycolysis and Glycogen Metabolism
    21. Glucose Utilization
    22. Lipid Metabolism in Muscle
    23. Influence of Exercise on Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism
    24. Regulation of Extramuscular Fuel Sources During Exercise
    25. Muscle Plasticity: Energy Demand and Supply Processes
    26. Regulation of Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscle by Contractile Activity
    27. Cellular, Molecular, and Metabolic Basis of Muscle Fatigue
  37. Supplement 30: Handbook of Physiology, Comparative Physiology
    1. Preface
    2. Adaptation and the Evolution of Physiological Characters
    3. Vertebrate Nervous System
    4. Vertebrate Locomotion
    5. Vertebrate Cardiovascular Systems
    6. Vertebrate Respiratory Gas Exchange
    7. Vertebrate Hemoglobins
    8. Vertebrate Gastrointestinal System
    9. Vertebrate Renal System
    10. Extrarenal Mechanisms in Hydromineral and Acid-Base Regulation in Aquatic Vertebrates
    11. Endocrinology of the Vertebrates
    12. Preface
    13. Invertebrate Nervous Systems
    14. Invertebrate Locomotor Systems
    15. Invertebrate Circulatory Systems
    16. Invertebrate Respiratory Systems
    17. Invertebrate Blood Oxygen Carriers
    18. Nutrient Absorption in Invertebrates
    19. Mechanisms of Excretion and Ion Transport in Invertebrates
    20. Invertebrate Endocrinology
    21. Temperature Relationships: From Molecules to Biogeography
    22. Anhydrobiosis: Cellular Adaptation to Extreme Dehydration
    23. Adaptations to Variations in Oxygen Tension by Vertebrates and Invertebrates
    24. Variations in Salinity, Osmolarity, and Water Availability: Vertebrates and Invertebrates
    25. Mechanical and Metabolic Design of the Muscular System in Vertebrates
    26. Daily and Seasonal Rhythms
  38. Supplement 31: Handbook of Physiology, Cell Physiology
    1. Preface
    2. Optical Methods in Cell Physiology
    3. Organization and Dynamics of the Lipid Components of Biological Membranes
    4. Membrane Structure/Proteins
    5. Energy Transduction Mechanisms (Animals and Plants)
    6. Principles of Regulation and Control in Biochemistry: A Pragmatic, Flux-Oriented Approach
    7. Basic Principles of Transport
    8. Membrane Transport in Single Cells
    9. Epithelial Transport
    10. Intracellular pH
    11. Osmolytes and Cell-Volume Regulation: Physiological and Evolutionary Principles
    12. Of Membrane Stability and Mosaics: The Spectrin Cytoskeleton
    13. Extracellular Matrix: A Solid-State Regulator of Cell form, Function, and Tissue Development
    14. Microtubule Motors in Cell and Tissue Function
    15. Membrane Fusion
    16. The ER–Golgi Membrane System: Compartmental Organization and Protein Traffic
    17. Regulated Exocytosis in Mammalian Secretory Cells
    18. Epithelial Cell Polarity: Challenges and Methodologies
    19. Mechanisms of Transmembrane Signaling
    20. Cellular Immunology
    21. Cilia and Related Microtubular Arrays in the Eukaryotic Cell
    22. Principles of Cell Cycle Control
    23. Regulation of Development: Differentiation and Morphogenesis
    24. Activation of Sperm and Egg During Fertilization
    25. Cellular Mechanisms During Mammalian Fertilization