Accumulated data from five handedness surveys show that concordance for sex is slightly but reliably higher among siblings of the same handedness than among those of opposite handedness. This is consistent with Crow's theory that the genetic locus for handedness is in an X-Y homologous region of the sex chromosomes. The small size of the effect is predicted from genetic models in which there is a substantial random component underlying phenotypic left handedness. The findings are relevant to the putative role of cerebral asymmetry in the aetiology of psychosis. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.