• δ-opioid receptor gene;
  • candidate gene;
  • heroin dependence;
  • alcoholism;
  • addiction;
  • case-control study;
  • family-based association study


In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that addictive behavior may be influenced by genetic variation in the human δ-opioid receptor gene. We investigated the contribution of a silent T to C change in the coding region to the development of heroin and alcohol dependence using large case-control and family-based association samples. Presence of the C allele was previously reported to significantly increase the risk for heroin dependence. In the present study, however, we did not find statistically significant differences between patients and controls nor did we find preferential transmission of the C allele from parents to affected offspring. Our results, therefore, do not support an association between genetic variation of the δ-opioid receptor and addictive behavior in man. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 88:462–464, 1999. © 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.