SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Adams DB. 1983. Why there are so few women warriors. Behav Sci Res 18:196212.
  • Adams ES. 1990. Boundary disputes in the territorial ant Azteca trigona: effects of asymmetries in colony size. Anim Behav 39:321328.
  • Alexander RD. 1987. The biology of moral systems. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. p. 1301.
  • Alexander RD. 1989. Evolution of the human psyche. In: MellarsP, StringerC, editors. The human revolution: Behavioral and biological perspectives on the origins of modern humans. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p 455513.
  • Alp R. 1993. Meat-eating and ant-dipping by wild chimpanzees in Sierra Leone. Primates 34:463468.
  • Anderson JR, Williamson EA, Carter J. 1983. Chimpanzees of Sapo Forest, Liberia: density, nests, tools, and meat-eating. Primates 24:594601.
  • Arcadi AC, Wrangham RW. 1999. Infanticide in chimpanzees: review of cases and a new within-group observation from the Kanyawara study group in Kibale National Park. Primates 40:337351.
  • Archer J, Huntingford F. 1994. Game theory models and escalation of animal fights. In: PotegalM, KnutsonJF, editors. The dynamics of aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. p 331.
  • Ardrey R. 1961. African genesis: A personal investigation into the animal origins and nature of man. New York: Atheneum. p 1330.
  • Ardrey R. 1966. The territorial imperative. New York: Atheneum. p 1416.
  • Ashley Montagu MF. 1968. Man and aggression. London: Oxford University Press. p 1178.
  • Austad S. 1983. A game theoretical interpretation of male combat in the bowl and doily spider (Frontinella pyramitela). Anim Behav 31:5973.
  • Bailey RC. 1991. The behavioral ecology of Efé pygmy men in the Ituri Forest, Zaïre. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. p 1143.
  • Barkow J, Cosmides L, Tooby J. 1995. The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press. p 1668.
  • Basasose N, Yamagiwa J. 1997. Predation on mammals by chimpanzees in the montane forest of Kahuzi, Zaire. Primates 38:4555.
  • Bauer HR. 1980. Chimpanzee society and social dominance in evolutionary perspective. In: OmarkDR, StrayerFF, FreedmanD, editors. Dominance relations: Ethological perspectives of human conflict. New York: Garland. p 97119.
  • Boehm C. 1992. Segmentary “warfare” and the management of conflict: comparison of East African chimpanzees and patrilineal-patrilocal humans. In: HarcourtAH, de WaalFBM, editors. Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 137173.
  • Boehm C. 1999. The natural selection of altruistic traits. Human Nature: 10.
  • Bock K. 1980. Human nature and history: A response to sociobiology. New York: Columbia University Press. p 1241.
  • Boesch C. 1996. Social grouping in Taï chimpanzees. In: McGrewWC, MarchantLF, NishidaT, editors. Great ape societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 101113.
  • Boesch C, Boesch H. 1989. Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Taï National Park. Am J Phys Anthropol 78:547573. Medline
  • Boesch C, Boesch H. 1999. The chimpanzees of the Taï Forest: Behavioral ecology and evolution. New York: Oxford University Press, in press.
  • Brain CK. 1981. The hunters or the hunted? An introduction to African cave taphonomy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p 1365.
  • Bueno de Mesquita B. 1981. The war trap. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p 1223.
  • Bueno de Mesquita B. 1985. The war trap revisited. A revised expected utility model. Am Polit Sci Rev 79:156177.
  • Bueno de Mesquita B, Lalman D. 1992. War and reason: Domestic and international imperatives. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p 1322.
  • Byers J. 1997. American pronghorn: Social adaptations and the ghosts of predators past. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p 1300.
  • Bygott JD. 1979. Agonistic behavior, dominance, and social structure in wild chimpanzees of the Gombe National Park. In: HamburgDA, McCownER, editors. The great apes. Menlo Park,. CA: Benjamin/Cummings. p 405428.
  • Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. 1997. Preventing deadly conflict: Final report. Washington DC: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. p 1257.
  • Caro TM, Collins DA. 1986. Male cheetahs of the Serengeti. Nat Geogr Res 2:7586.
  • Cartmill M. 1993. A view to a death in the morning: Hunting and nature through history. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p 1331.
  • Chagnon NA. 1992. Yanomamö: The last days of Eden. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p 1309.
  • Chapais B. 1995. Alliances as a means of competition in primates: evolutionary, developmental and cognitive aspects. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 38:115136.
  • Chapman CA, Wrangham RW. 1993. Range use of the forest chimpanzees of Kibale: implications for the understanding of chimpanzee social organization. Am J Primatol 31:263273.
  • Chapman CA, White FJ, Wrangham RW. 1994. Party size in chimpanzees and bonobos: A reevaluation of theory based on two similarly forested sites. In: WranghamRW, McGrewWC, de WaalFBM, editors. Chimpanzee cultures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p 4158.
  • Chapman CA, Wrangham RW, Chapman LJ. 1995. Ecological constraints on group size: an analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 32:199209.
  • Chapman CA, Chapman LJ, Wrangham R, Isabirye-Basuta G, Ben-David K. 1997. Spatial and temporal variability in the structure of a tropical forest. Afr J Ecol 35:287302.
  • Cheney DL. 1986. Interactions and relationships between groups. In: SmutsBB, CheneyDL, SeyfarthRM, WranghamRW, StruhsakerTT, editors. Primate societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p 227239.
  • Cheney DL, Seyfarth RM, Andelman SJ, Lee PC. 1988. Reproductive success in vervet monkeys. In: Clutton-BrockTH, editor. Reproductive success: Studies of individual variation in contrasting breeding systems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p 384402.
  • Clutton-Brock TH, Guinness FE, Albon SD. 1982. Red deer: Behavior and ecology of two sexes. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p 1378.
  • Daly M, Wilson M. 1988. Homicide. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. p 1328.
  • Dart RA. 1953. The predatory transition from ape to man. Intern Anthropol Ling Rev 1:201218.
  • Dart RA, Craig D. 1959. Adventures with the missing link. New York: Harper. p 1255.
  • Darwin C. 1871. The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray. p 1475.
  • Dentan RK. 1992. The rise, maintenance, and destruction of peaceable polity: a preliminary essay in political ecology. In: SilverbergJ, GrayJP, editors. Aggression and peacefulness in humans and other primates. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 214270.
  • de Waal FBM. 1982. Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among apes. New York: Harper and Row. p 1223.
  • de Waal FBM, Lanting F. 1997. Bonobo: The forgotten ape. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p 1210.
  • de Ruiter JR, van Hooff JARAM. 1993. Male dominance rank and reproductive success in primate groups. Primates 34:513524.
  • East ML, Hofer H. 1991. Loud-calling in a female dominated mammalian society. II Behavioral contexts and functions of whooping of spotted hyenas, Crocuta crocuta. Anim Behav 42:651669.
  • Ehrenreich B. 1997. Blood rites: Origins and history of the passions of war. New York: Metropolitan. p 1292.
  • Eibl-Eibesfeldt I. 1975. Krieg und Frieden aus der Sicht der Verhaltensforschung. Munich: Piper Verlag. p 1315.
  • Ellis L. 1995. Dominance and reproductive success among nonhuman animals: A cross-species comparison. Ethol Sociobiol 16:257333.
  • Enquist M, Leimar O. The evolution of fatal fighting. Anim Behav 39:19.
  • Ferguson RB. 1989. Anthropology and war: theory, politics, ethics. In: TurnerPR, PittD, editors. The anthropology of war and peace: Perspectives on the nuclear age. London: Greenwood Press. p 141159.
  • Ferrill A. 1985. The origins of war from the stone age to Alexander the Great. London: Thames and Hudson. p 141240.
  • Frank LG. 1986. Social organization of the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta). I. Demography. Anim Behav 35:15001509.
  • Furuichi T, Idani G, Ihobe H, Kuroda S, Kitamura K, Mori A, Enomoto T, Okayasu N, Hashimoto C, Kano T. 1998. Population dynamics of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba. Int J Primatol 19:10291043.
  • Ghiglieri MP. 1984. The chimpanzees of Kibale Forest: A field study of ecology and social structure. New York: Columbia University Press. p 141226.
  • Ghiglieri MP. 1988. Sociobiology of the great apes and the hominid ancestor. J Hum Evol 16:319358.
  • Goodall J. 1986. The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p 141673.
  • Goodall J, Bandora A, Bergmann E, Busse C, Matama H, Mpongo E, Pierce A, Riss D. 1979. Intercommunity interactions in the chimpanzee population of the Gombe National Park. In: HamburgDA, McCownER, editors. >The great apes. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. p 1354.
  • Gould SJ. 1996. The Diet of Worms and the defenestration of Prague. Natur Hist, Sept: 1867.
  • Grinnell J, Packer C, Pusey AE. 1995. Cooperation in male lions: kinship, reciprocity or mutualism? Anim Behav 49:95105.
  • Grossman D. 1996. On killing: The psychological cost of learning to kill in war and society. Boston, MA: Little, Brown. p 1367.
  • Hamburg DA. 1991. An evolutionary perspective on human aggression. In: BatesonP, editor. The development and integration of behavior: Essays in honor of Robert Hinde. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 419458.
  • Harcourt AH. 1987. Dominance and fertility among female primates. J Zool Lond 213:471487.
  • Hashimoto C, Tashiro Y, Kimura D, Enomoto T, Ingmanson EJ, Idani G, Furuichi T. 1998. Habitat use and ranging of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba. Int J Primatol 19:10451060.
  • Hausfater G, Hrdy SB, 1984. Infanticide: Comparative and evolutionary perspectives. Hawthorn, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. p 1596.
  • Henschel JR, Skinner JD. 1991. Territorial behavior by a clan of spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta. Ethology 88:223235.
  • Hinde RA. 1993. Aggression and war: individuals, groups, and states. In: TetlockPE, HusbandsJL, JervisR, editors. Behavior, society, and international conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p 870.
  • Hofer A, Huffman MA, Zeisler G. 1998. Mahale: Begegnung mit Schimpansen. Verlag Navalon. p 1159.
  • Hölldobler B. 1981. Foraging and spatiotemporal territories in the honey ant Myrmecocystus mimicus Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Behav Ecol Sociobiol 9:301314.
  • Hrdy SB. 1990. Sex bias in nature and in history: a late 1980s reexamination of the “biological origins” argument. Yearbk Phys Anthropol 33:2537.
  • Idani G. 1991. Cases of inter-unit group encounters in pygmy chimpanzees at Wamba, Zaïre. In: EharaA, etal., editors. Primatology Today: Proceedings of the XIIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p 235238.
  • Isabirye-Basuta G. 1989. The ecology and conservation status of the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Kibale Forest, Uganda. Ph.D. dissertation, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. p 1280.
  • Janson CH, Goldsmith ML. 1995. Predicting group size in primates: foraging costs and predation risks. Behav Ecol 6:326336.
  • Jurmain R. 1997. Skeletal evidence of trauma in African apes, with special reference to the Gombe chimpanzees. Primates 38:114.
  • Kano T. 1992. The last ape: Pygmy chimpanzee behavior and ecology. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p 1248.
  • Keegan J. 1993. A history of warfare. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p 1432.
  • Keeley LH. 1996. War before civilization. New York: Oxford University Press. p 1245.
  • Knauft B. 1991. Violence and sociality in human evolution. Curr Anthropol 32:391428.
  • Krebs JR, Davies NB. 1997. Behavioral ecology: an evolutionary approach. Oxford: Blackwell. p 1456.
  • Kruuk H. 1972. The spotted hyena: A study of predation and social behavior. Chicago: Chicago University Press.. p 1335.
  • Kuroda S. 1979. Grouping of the pygmy chimpanzees. Primates 20:161183.
  • Larsen CS. 1997. Bioarchaeology: Interpreting behavior from the human skeleton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 1461.
  • Leach E. 1968. Don't say “Boo” to a goose. In: AshleyMontagu MF, editor. Man and aggression. London: Oxford University Press. p 6573.
  • Leonard WR, Robertson ML. 1997. Comparative primate energetics and hominid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 102:265281. Medline
  • Lorenz K. 1966. On aggression. Translated by Marjorie Latzke. London: Methuen. p 1273.
  • Lowen C, Dunbar RIM. 1994. Territory size and defendability in primates. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 35:347354.
  • Manson JH, Wrangham RW. 1991. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and humans. Curr Anthropol 32:369390.
  • Maschner HDG, Reedy-Maschner KL. 1998. Raid, retreat, defend (repeat): the archaeology and ethnohistory of warfare on the North Pacific rim. J Anthropol Archaeol 17:1951.
  • McComb K, Packer C, Pusey A. 1994. Roaring and numerical assessment in contests between groups of female lions, Panthera leo. Anim Behav 47:379387.
  • McGrew WC, Tutin CEG, Baldwin PJ. 1979. New data on meat-eating by wild chimpanzees. Curr Anthropol 20:238239.
  • Mech LD. 1977. Productivity, mortality, and population trends of wolves in north-eastern Minnesota. J Mammal 58:559574.
  • Mech LD. 1994. Buffer zones of territories of gray wolves as regions of intraspecific strife. J Mammal 75:199202.
  • Mech LD, Adams LG, Meier TJ, Burch JW, Dale BW. 1998. The Wolves of Denali. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. p 1225.
  • Miller LE. 1998. Fatal attack among wedge-capped capuchins. Folia Primatol 69:8992. Medline
  • Milton K. 1987. Primate diets and gut morphology: implications for hominid evolution. In: HarrisM, RossEB, editors. Food and evolution: Toward a theory of human food habits. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p 93116.
  • Mitani JC, Rodman PS. 1979. Territoriality: relation of ranging patterns and home range size to defendability, with an analysis of territoriality among primate species. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 5:241251.
  • Morris D. 1977. Manwatching: A field guide to human behavior. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. p 1318.
  • Newton-Fisher NE. 1997. Tactical behavior and decision-making in wild chimpanzees. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge. p 1325.
  • Nishida T. 1979. The social structure of chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. In: HamburgDA, McCownER, editors. The great apes. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. p 73121.
  • Nishida T. 1990. A quarter century of research in the Mahale Mountains: An overview. In: NishidaT, editor. The chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: Sexual and life history strategies. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. p 336.
  • Nishida T. 1994. Review of recent findings on Mahale chimpanzees: implications and future research directions. In: WranghamRW, McGrewWC, de WaalFBM, HeltnePG, editors. Chimpanzee cultures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p 373396.
  • Nishida T. 1996. The great chimpanzee ruler killed by a coalition of previous group mates: cruel political dynamics in wild chimpanzees. Asahi-Shimbun, January 31, 1996, evening edition. p 1.
  • Nishida T, Haraiwa-Hasegawa M, Takahata Y. 1985. Group extinction and female transfer in wild chimpanzees in the Mahale National Park, Tanzania. Z Tierpsychol 67:284301.
  • Nunn CL. 1999. Collective benefits, free-riders, and male extragroup conflict. In: KappelerP, editor. Male primates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 192204.
  • Otterbein KF. 1985. Preface to Second Edition. In: The evolution of war: A cross-cultural study. New Haven, CT: Human Relations Area Files. p 1165.
  • Otterbein KF. 1997. The origins of war. Crit Rev 11:251277.
  • Packer C, Herbst L, Pusey AE, Bygott JD, Hanby JP, Cairns SJ, Mulder MB. 1988. Reproductive success of lions. In: Clutton-BrockTH, editor. Reproductive success: Studies of individual variation in contrasting breeding systems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p 363383.
  • Palombit RA. 1999. Infanticide and the evolution of pair bonds in nonhuman primates. Evol Anthropol 7:117129.
  • Parish A. 1996. Female relationships in bonobos (Pan paniscus): evidence for bonding, cooperation, and female dominance in a male-philopatric species. Hum Nature 7:6196.
  • Pilbeam D. 1996. Genetic and morphological records of the Hominoidea and hominid origins: A synthesis. Mol Phylogenet Evol 5:155168. Medline
  • Popp J, DeVore I. 1979. Aggressive competition and social dominance theory. In: HamburgDA, McCownER, editors. The great apes. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings. p 317338.
  • Power M. 1991. The Egalitarians—Human and chimpanzee: An anthropological view of social organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 1–290.
  • Prost JH. 1985. Chimpanzee behavior and models of hominization. In: KondoS, editor. Primate morphophysiology, locomotor analyses, and human bipedalism. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. p 289303.
  • Putland DA, Goldizen AW. 1998. Territorial behavior in the Tasmanian native hen: group and individual performance. Anim Behav 56:14551463. Medline
  • Regal P. 1998. Violence and sex. Q Rev Biol 73:473476.
  • Reynolds V, Reynolds F. 1965. Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. In: De VoreI, editor. Primate behavior. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. p. 368424.
  • Rodseth L, Wrangham RW, Smuts BB, Harrigan A. 1991. The human community as a primate society. Curr Anthropol 32:221254.
  • Shea BT. 1984. An allometric perspective on the morphological and evolutionary relationships between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common (Pan troglodytes) chimpanzees. In: SusmanRL, editor. The pygmy chimpanzee. New York: Plenum Press. p 89130.
  • Singer JD. 1989. The political origins of international war: a multifactorial review. In: GroebelJ, HindeRA, editors. Aggression and war: Their biological and social bases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 202220.
  • Smuts BB. 1986. Sex and friendship in babboons. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. p 1303.
  • Sponsel LE. 1996. The natural history of peace: a positive view of human nature and its potential. In: GregorT, editor. A natural history of peace. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. p 95125.
  • Stanford C. 1998a. The social behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos: A critical review. Curr Anthropol 39:399420.
  • Stanford CB. 1998b. Chimpanzee and red colobus: The ecology of predator and prey. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p 1296.
  • Starin ED. 1994. Philopatry and affiliation among red colobus. Behaviour 130:253270.
  • Sugiyama Y. 1973. Social organization of wild chimpanzees. In: CarpenterCR, editor. Behavioral regulators of behavior in primates. Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell University Press. p 6880.
  • Sugiyama Y. 1989. Population dynamics of chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea. In: HeltnePG, MarquardtLA, editors. Understanding chimpanzees. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p 134145.
  • Sugiyama Y, Kawamoto S, Takenaka O, Kumazaki K, Miwa N. 1993. Paternity discrimination and inter-group relationships of chimpanzees at Bossou. Primates 34:545552.
  • Sussman RW, 1997. The biological basis of human behavior: A critical review. New York: Prentice Hall. p 1382.
  • Thompson JAM. 1997. The history, taxonomy and ecology of the bonobo (Pan paniscus Schwartz, 1929) with a first description of a wild population living in a forest/savanna mosaic habitat. D. Phil. thesis, Oxford University. p 1315.
  • Tiger L. 1969. Men in groups. New York: Random House. p 1254.
  • Trudeau MB, Bergmann-Riss E, Hamburg DA. 1981. Towards an evolutionary perspective on aggressive behavior: the chimpanzee evidence. In: HamburgDA, TrudeauMB, editors. Biobehavioral aspects of aggression. New York: Alan Liss. p 2740.
  • Tuchman BW. 1962. The guns of August. New York: Macmillan. p 1511.
  • Turney-High HH. 1949. Primitive war: Its practice and concepts. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. p 1288.
  • Tutin CEG, Fernandez M. 1993. Composition of the diet of chimpanzees and comparisons with that of sympatric lowland gorillas in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Am J Primatol 30:195211.
  • Tutin CEG, McGrew WC, Baldwin PJ. 1983. Social organization of savanna-dwelling chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, at Mt. Assirik, Senegal. Primates 24:154173.
  • van Hoof JARAM. 1990. Intergroup competition and conflict in animals and man. In: DennenJMG, van der FalgerVSE, editors. Sociobiology and conflict: Evolutionary perspectives on competition, cooperation, violence and warfare. London: Chapman and Hall. p 2354.
  • van Schaik CP. 1996. Social evolution in primates: the role of ecological factors and male behavior. Proc Brit Acad 88:931.
  • van der Dennen JMG. 1995. The origin of war: The evolution of a male-coalitional reproductive strategy. Groningen, Netherlands: Origin Press. p 1861.
  • Watts DP. 1999. Coalitionary mate-guarding by male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 44:4355.
  • White FJ. 1988. Party composition and dynamics in Pan paniscus. Int J Primatol 9:179193.
  • White FJ. 1996. Comparative socio-ecology of Pan paniscus. In: McGrewWC, MarchantLF, NishidaT, editors. Great ape societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 2941.
  • White FJ. 1998. Seasonality and socioecology: the importance of variation in fruit abundance to bonobo sociality. Int J Primatol 19:10131027.
  • Wolpoff M. 1998. Paleoanthropology. New York: Alfred Knopf. p 1370.
  • Wrangham RW. 1974. Artificial feeding of chimpanzees and baboons in their natural habitat. Anim Behav 22:8393.
  • Wrangham RW. 1975. The behavioral ecology of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Ph.D. dissertation, Cambridge University. p 1280.
  • Wrangham RW. 1987. The significance of African apes for reconstructing human social evolution. In: KinzeyWG, editor. Primate models of hominid evolution. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. p 5171.
  • Wrangham RW. 1999a. Why are male chimpanzees more gregarious than mothers? A scramble competition hypothesis. In: KappelerP, editor. Male primates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 248258.
  • Wrangham RW. 1999b. Is military incompetence adaptive? Evol Hum Behav 20:317.
  • Wrangham RW, Peterson D. 1996. Demonic males: Apes and the origins of human violence. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. p 1350.
  • Wrangham RW, Clark AP, Isabirye-Basuta G. 1992. Female social relationships and social organization of the Kibale Forest chimpanzees. In: NishidaT, McGrewWC, MarlerP, PickfordM, de WaalFBM, editors. Topics in primatology: Human origins. (Volume 1) Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. p 8198.
  • Wrangham RW, Chapman CA, Clark AP, Isabirye-Basuta G. 1996. Social ecology of Kanyawara chimpanzees: implications for understanding the costs of great ape groups. In: McGrewWC, MarchantLF, NishidaT, editors. Great ape societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 4557.
  • Wrangham RW, Conklin-Brittain NL, Hunt KD. 1998. Dietary response of chimpanzees and cercopithecines to seasonal variation in fruit abundance: I. Antifeedants. Int J Primatol 19:949970.
  • Zihlman AL. 1996. Looking back in anger. Nature 384:3536.
  • Zihlman AL, Cramer DL. 1978. Skeletal differences between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Folia Primatol 29:8694. Medline