The Potential of Semiochemicals for Control of Phorodon humuli (Homoptera: Aphididae)



Field experiments employing yellow water-traps with vials releasing methyl salicylate, butyl isothiocyanate, 4-pentenyl isothiocyanate and diethyltoluamide were conducted during the spring migration of Phorodon humuli (Schrank), with the aim of identifying substances which might be used in the field to deter landing on hop plants. Methyl salicylate and the two isothiocyanates reduced trap catches of P. humuli. During the spring of 1994 a slow-release formulation of methyl salicylate and a β-acid-rich hop resin sprayed on to hop plants did not reduce aphid infestations significantly. In autumn cis,cis-nepetalactol, the main component of P. ‘humuli’s sex pheromone, prepared by various synthetic routes, increased trap catches of males and gynoparae equally. Catches of males in pheromone traps situated in a hop garden decreased with increasing trap height. Catches of males in traps charged with increasing doses of the cis,cis-nepetalactol peaked at 1 mg and then plateaued, whereas catches of gynoparae peaked similarly at 1 mg and then decreased. The effects of kairomones from an extract of the primary host, sex pheromone and a visual cue from yellow compared with clear water-traps were additive. The prospects for developing a semiochemicals-based control strategy against P. humuli, using some or all of the above elements, are discussed.