Modulation of Glycerol and Ethanol Yields During Alcoholic Fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Overexpressed or Disrupted for GPD1 Encoding Glycerol 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

Authors

  • Sumio Michnick,

    1. Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Technologie des Fermentations, INRA-IPV, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier cedex 01, France
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  • Jean-Louis Roustan,

    1. Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Technologie des Fermentations, INRA-IPV, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier cedex 01, France
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  • Fabienne Remize,

    1. Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Technologie des Fermentations, INRA-IPV, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier cedex 01, France
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  • Pierre Barre,

    1. Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Technologie des Fermentations, INRA-IPV, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier cedex 01, France
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  • Sylvie Dequin

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Technologie des Fermentations, INRA-IPV, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier cedex 01, France
    • Laboratoire de Microbiologie et Technologie des Fermentations, INRA-IPV, 2 Place Viala, F-34060 Montpellier cedex 01, France
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Abstract

The possibility of the diversion of carbon flux from ethanol towards glycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation was investigated. Variations in the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) level and similar trends for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphatase were found when low and high glycerol-forming wine yeast strains were compared. GPDH is thus a limiting enzyme for glycerol production. Wine yeast strains with modulated GPD1 (encoding one of the two GPDH isoenzymes) expression were constructed and characterized during fermentation on glucose-rich medium. Engineered strains fermented glucose with a strongly modified [glycerol] : [ethanol] ratio. gpd1Δ mutants exhibited a 50% decrease in glycerol production and increased ethanol yield. Overexpression of GPD1 on synthetic must (200 g/l glucose) resulted in a substantial increase in glycerol production (×4) at the expense of ethanol. Acetaldehyde accumulated through the competitive regeneration of NADH via GPDH. Accumulation of by-products such as pyruvate, acetate, acetoin, 2,3 butane-diol and succinate was observed, with a marked increase in acetoin production. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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