• 1
    Okazaki N, Yoshida T, Yoshino M. Screening of patients with chronic liver disease for hepatocellular carcinoma by ultrasonography. Clin Oncol 1984; 10: 2416.
  • 2
    Sugiura N, Takara K, Ohto M, Okuda K, Hirooka N. Treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma by percutaneous injection of ethanol into tumor with real-time ultrasound monitoring. Acta Hepatol Jpn 1983; 24: 920.
  • 3
    Ebara M, Kita K, Yoshikawa M, Sugiura N, Ohto M. Percutaneous ethanol injection for patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma. In: TobeT, editor. Primary liver cancer in Japan. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, 1992: 291300.
  • 4
    Shiina S, Tagawa K, Niwa Y, Unuma T, Komatsu Y, Yoshiura K, et al. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: results in 146 patients. AJR 1993; 160: 10238.
  • 5
    Tanikawa K, Majima Y. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterolugy 1993; 40: 3247.
  • 6
    Kotoh K, Sakai H, Sakamoto S, Nakayama S, Satoh M, Morotomi I, et al. The effect of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy on small solitary hepatocellular carcinoma is comparable to that of hepatectomy. Am J Gastroenterol 1994; 89: 1948.
  • 7
    Livraghi T, Giorgio A, Marin G, Salmi A, de Sio I, Bolondi L, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis in 746 patients: long-term results of percutaneous ethanol injection. Radiology 1995; 197: 1018.
  • 8
    Castells A, Bruix J, Bru C, Fuster J, Vilana R, Navasa M, et al. Treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients: a cohort study comparing surgical resection and percutaneous ethanol injection. Hepatology 1993; 18: 11216.
  • 9
    Kaplan EL, Meier P. Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 1958; 63: 45781.
  • 10
    Shiina S, Tagawa K, Unuma T, Takanashi R, Yoshiura K, Komatsu Y, et al. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a histopathologic study. Cancer 1991; 68: 152430.
  • 11
    Vilana R, Bruix J, Bru C, Ayuso C, Soré M, Rodés J. Tumor size determines the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 1992; 16: 3537.
  • 12
    Kanai T, Hirohashi S, Upton M, Noguchi M, Kishi M, Makuuchi M, et al. Pathology of small hepatocellular carcinoma: a proposal for a new gross classification. Cancer 1987; 60: 8109.
  • 13
    Yuki K, Hirohashi S, Sakamoto M, Kanai T, Shimosato Y. Growth and spread of hepatocellular carcinoma: a review of 240 consecutive autopsy cases. Cancer 1990; 66: 21749.
  • 14
    Utsunomiya T, Matsunuma T, Adachi E, Honda H, Sugimachi K. Limitations of current preoperative liver imaging techniques for intrahepatic metastatic nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 1992; 16: 694701.
  • 15
    Sironi S, De Cobelli F, Livragi T, Villa G, Zanello A, Taccagni G, et al. Small hepatocellular carcinoma treated with percutaneous ethanol injection: unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging follow-up. Radiology 1994; 192: 40712.
  • 16
    Ebara M, Kita K, Sugiura N, Yoshikawa M, Fukuda H, Ohto M, et al. Therapeutic effect of ethanol injection on small hepatocellular carcinoma: evaluation with CT. Radiology 1995; 195: 3717.
  • 17
    Lencioni R, Caramella D, Bartolozzi C. Hepatocellular carcinoma: use of color Doppler US to evaluate response to treatment with percutaneous ethanol injection. Radiology 1995; 194: 1138.
  • 18
    Yoshikawa J, Matsui O, Kadoya M, Gabata T, Miyayama S, Takahashi S, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma: CT appearance of parenchymal changes after percutaneous ethanol injection therapy. Radiology 1995; 194: 10711.
  • 19
    Ito K, Honjo K, Fujita T, Awaya H, Matsumoto T, Matsunaga N. Enhanced MR imaging of the liver after ethanol treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: evaluation of areas of hyperperfusion adjacent to the tumor. AJR 1995; 164: 14137.