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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

1 December 1999

Volume 86, Issue 11

Pages 2189–2447

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Original Articles
    4. Communication
    5. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      How to improve the present TNM staging system (pages 2189–2191)

      Paul Hermanek, Leslie H. Sobin and Christian Wittekind

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2189::AID-CNCR1>3.0.CO;2-R

      Improvements to the present TNM staging system may be achieved by the inclusion of proven nonanatomic prognostic factors independent of tumor extent, lymph node status, and the presence or absence of metastasis.

      See also pages 2436–46.

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      Patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and their smoking status (pages 2192–2194)

      Joseph A. Smith Jr.

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2192::AID-CNCR2>3.0.CO;2-S

      Non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma characteristically has a pattern of frequent new tumor formation within the bladder. The disease is more common in smokers and cessation of smoking could favorably alter tumor-related outcome.

      See also pages 2337–45.

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      Molecular markers in renal cell carcinoma : Not quite ready for “prime time” (pages 2195–2197)

      J. Brantley Thrasher

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2195::AID-CNCR3>3.0.CO;2-M

      Molecular markers are becoming an increasingly important tool for diagnosing, staging, predicting recurrences of, and directing the treatment of multiple malignancies. However, variable techniques, variable antibodies, interobserver variability in the assessment of the markers, cost, and the lack of multi-institutional trials have limited the use of these markers in clinical practice.

      See also pages 2320–6.

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      Mandatory second opinion of pathologic slides : Is it necessary? (pages 2198–2200)

      John E. Tomaszewski and Virginia A. LiVolsi

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2198::AID-CNCR4>3.0.CO;2-G

      There are many aspects to diagnostic quality assurance in surgical pathology, each with its own specific value. However, in the current era of cost containment, the beneficial aspects of rereviewing pathology slides must be weighed against the resistance of third-party payers to offer reimbursement. Although it is possible that some compromise can be reached, guidelines regarding the second opinion review must be established jointly by clinicians and pathologists.

      See also pages 2426–35.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Original Articles
    4. Communication
    5. Erratum
    1. Anatomic Site

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      Porphyrin-like fluorescence in oral cancer : In vivo fluorescence spectral characterization of lesions by use of a near-ultraviolet excited autofluorescence diagnosis system and separation of fluorescent extracts by capillary electrophoresis (pages 2201–2211)

      Masahiro Inaguma and Kenji Hashimoto

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2201::AID-CNCR5>3.0.CO;2-9

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      When exposed to ultraviolet light at a wavelength of 410 nm, 85% of the carcinomas studied showed porphyrin-like fluorescence spectra, whereas the normal mucosa in the oral cavity did not. Porphyrin-like fluorescent compounds were extracted from oral carcinomas and separated by a capillary electrophoretic system.

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      Rationale for bladder-sparing surgery in patients with locally advanced colorectal carcinoma (pages 2212–2216)

      M. Derya Balbay, Joel W. Slaton, Nicholas Trane, John Skibber and Colin P. N. Dinney

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2212::AID-CNCR6>3.0.CO;2-2

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      Primary or recurrent T3 classification adenocarcinoma of the rectum frequently requires total pelvic exenteration to remove the neoplasm. The bladder was spared in 35 cases of T3 classification rectal cancer, thus avoiding complications related to urinary diversion. Bladder sparing should be avoided in patients if both a CT scan and intraoperative examination suggest bladder involvement.

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      Humoral hypercalcemia in patients with colorectal carcinoma : Report of two cases and review of the literature (pages 2217–2221)

      Alain H. Lortholary, Sophie D. Cadeau, Gerard M. Bertrand, Veronique I. Guerin-Meyer, Erick C. Gamelin and Maurice J. Audran

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2217::AID-CNCR7>3.0.CO;2-V

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      A study of two cases of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy associated with colorectal carcinoma shows positive tumor immunoreactivity to parathyroid hormone-related peptide monoclonal antiserum.

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      The prognostic importance of volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, mitotic index, and other stereologically measured quantitative parameters in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma (pages 2222–2228)

      Jens Knud Daugård Bentzen, Hanne Sand Hansen and Henrik Winther Nielsen

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2222::AID-CNCR8>3.0.CO;2-U

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      The prognostic importance of volume-weighted mean nuclear volume, mitotic index, and several other sterologically measured parameters was tested in a sample of 113 supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. None of the parameters proved to have prognostic importance.

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      Determinants of long term survival after surgery for cancer of the lung : A population-based study (pages 2229–2237)

      Christine Bouchardy, Gérald Fioretta, Marc De Perrot, Mirjana Obradovic and Anastase Spiliopoulos

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2229::AID-CNCR9>3.0.CO;2-K

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      This population-based study, which aimed to determine independent factors influencing the curability of resected lung cancer patients, highlights a strong gender difference. Even after controlling for the effect of other established prognostic factors, women appeared to present a twofold likelihood of being long term survivors.

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      The addition of cisplatin to cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-etoposide combination chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with small cell lung carcinoma : A randomized study of 457 patients (pages 2238–2245)

      Thierry Urban, Claude Chastang, François-Xavier Lebas, Jean-Paul Duhamel, Guy Adam, Jacqueline Darse, Jeanne-Marie Bréchot and Bernard Lebeau

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2238::AID-CNCR10>3.0.CO;2-G

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      In this randomized, controlled clinical trial, the addition of cisplatin to cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-etoposide (CDE) combination chemotherapy in the treatment of 457 patients was assessed. Survival was similar in both groups (P = 0.93) despite a significantly higher response rate with the addition of cisplatin (P = 0.0001). A higher incidence of fatal neutropenia was observed with the addition of cisplatin to CDE (P < 0.001).

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      A Phase I–II trial of escalating doses of mitoxantrone with fixed doses of cytarabine plus fludarabine as salvage therapy for patients with acute leukemia and the blastic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (pages 2246–2251)

      Charles A. Koller, Hagop M. Kantarjian, Eric J. Feldman, Susan O'Brien, Mary Beth Rios, Elihu Estey and Michael Keating

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2246::AID-CNCR11>3.0.CO;2-I

      Fifty-five patients with refractory or relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, or the blastic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia were treated with the combination of fludarabine plus cytarabine, to which were added increasing doses of mitoxantrone (up to 60 mg/m2 over 4 days). Responses were observed but dose-limiting toxicity did not occur. Focused Phase II studies are recommended to define activity.

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      Follow-up recommendations for patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages I–III malignant melanoma (pages 2252–2258)

      Wen-Jen Poo-Hwu, Stephan Ariyan, Lynne Lamb, Rose Papac, Daniel Zelterman, Grace L. Hu, Janis Brown, David Fischer, Jean Bolognia and Antonio C. Buzaid

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2252::AID-CNCR12>3.0.CO;2-Q

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      This study, involving a follow-up protocol initiated 10 years ago for patients with Stage I–III cutaneous melanoma, has resulted in a modified surveillance schedule involving fewer patient visits coupled with a patient education program. The recommended guidelines are likely to be advantageous from the viewpoints of both utilization of medical resources and patient needs.

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      Met expression is associated with poor outcome in patients with axillary lymph node negative breast carcinoma (pages 2259–2265)

      Robert L. Camp, Eric B. Rimm and David L. Rimm

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2259::AID-CNCR13>3.0.CO;2-2

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      Expression of Met, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor, has been associated with aggressive behavior in a wide range of tumors. This article demonstrates that it is an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with axillary lymph node negative breast carcinoma.

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      Chemotherapy for breast carcinoma during pregnancy : A French national survey (pages 2266–2272)

      Pierre-Ludovic Giacalone, Francois Laffargue and Paul Bénos

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2266::AID-CNCR14>3.0.CO;2-7

      When chemotherapy was initiated after the first trimester, 95% of pregnancies resulted in live births with low related newborn morbidity.

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      Is radical trachelectomy a safe alternative to radical hysterectomy for patients with Stage IA–B carcinoma of the cervix? (pages 2273–2279)

      Allan Covens, Patricia Shaw, Joan Murphy, Denny DePetrillo, Gordon Lickrish, Stephane Laframboise and Barry Rosen

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2273::AID-CNCR15>3.0.CO;2-C

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      Radical trachelectomy appears to be similar in efficacy to radical hysterectomy for patients with early Stage I carcinoma of the cervix.

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      The Ovarian Tumor Index predicts risk for malignancy (pages 2280–2290)

      Diane M. Twickler, Thalia B. Forte, Rigoberto Santos-Ramos, Donald McIntire, Patsy Harris and David Scott Miller

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2280::AID-CNCR16>3.0.CO;2-H

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      The Ovarian Tumor Index, which combines age and ultrasound parameters, predicts the likelihood of malignancy in women with suspected adnexal masses.

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      A Phase I trial of intravenous melphalan, paclitaxel, and cisplatin plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in patients with suboptimal advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma or peritoneal carcinoma (pages 2291–2300)

      David M. Gershenson, Mitchell Morris, Thomas W. Burke, Charles Levenback, Judith Wolf, J. Jack Lee, Peter F. Thall, E. Neely Atkinson, Elvio G. Silva and J. Taylor Wharton

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2291::AID-CNCR17>3.0.CO;2-A

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      The combination of intravenous melphalan, paclitaxel, and cisplatin has acceptable toxicity and good activity in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma or peritoneal carcinoma.

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      Brain metastasis from prostate carcinoma : Antemortem recognition and outcome after treatment (pages 2301–2311)

      Ian E. McCutcheon, David Y. Eng and Christopher J. Logothetis

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2301::AID-CNCR18>3.0.CO;2-D

      Carcinoma of the prostate, an unusual source of brain metastasis, is recognized more frequently as patients with this disease live longer. Survival is limited, but it can be extended by surgery and/or radiotherapy.

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      Evidence that Leydig cells in Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors have a reactive rather than a neoplastic profile (pages 2312–2319)

      Eoghan E. Mooney, Yan-Gao Man, Gary L. Bratthauer and Fattaneh A. Tavassoli

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2312::AID-CNCR19>3.0.CO;2-6

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      Leydig cells in Sertoli-Leydig tumors are polyclonal, in contrast to the monoclonal nature of both the Sertoli cell elements in these tumors and a true Leydig cell neoplasm. This strongly suggests that Leydig cells in Sertoli-Leydig tumors are a reactive rather than a neoplastic component of these neoplasms.

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      Correlation of CD44S expression in renal clear cell carcinomas with subsequent tumor progression or recurrence (pages 2320–2326)

      Michael Z. Gilcrease, Manuel Guzman-Paz, Gloria Niehans, David Cherwitz, James B. McCarthy and Jorge Albores-Saavedra

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2320::AID-CNCR20>3.0.CO;2-0

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      Immunohistochemical staining for CD44S in renal clear cell carcinomas is associated with increased tumor progression or recurrence.

      See also pages 2195–7.

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      Coexpression of cytokeratins 7 and 20 confirms urothelial carcinoma presenting as an intrarenal tumor (pages 2327–2330)

      Aaron C. Han and Richard Duszak Jr.

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2327::AID-CNCR21>3.0.CO;2-D

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      Coexpression of cytokeratins 7 and 20 is a useful diagnostic marker to differentiate intrarenal tumors of urothelial origin from those of renal cell origin.

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      Incidence rate of satellite tumors in renal cell carcinoma (pages 2331–2336)

      Toshiaki Kinouchi, Masayuki Mano, Shigeru Saiki, Norio Meguro, Osamu Maeda, Masao Kuroda, Michiyuki Usami and Toshihiko Kotake

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2331::AID-CNCR22>3.0.CO;2-R

      In the current study, the incidence rate of satellite tumors in 124 renal cell carcinomas was 6.5%, and the presence of satellite tumors was not predictable. These satellite tumors had a proliferative potential different from that of small renal carcinomas detected in kidney specimens from urothelial tumors.

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      Influence of smoking status on the disease-related outcomes of patients with tobacco-associated superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pages 2337–2345)

      Neil Fleshner, JoAnne Garland, Alyson Moadel, Harry Herr, Jaimie Ostroff, Rene Trambert, Maryellen O'Sullivan and Paul Russo

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2337::AID-CNCR23>3.0.CO;2-6

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      Data from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center suggest that patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder are at increased risk for recurrence and progression if they continue to smoke.

      See also pages 2192–4.

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      Small cell carcinoma of the bladder : Long term outcome with integrated chemoradiation (pages 2346–2352)

      Caroline Lohrisch, Nevin Murray, Tom Pickles and Lorne Sullivan

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2346::AID-CNCR24>3.0.CO;2-5

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      A retrospective analysis suggests that the use of cisplatin-based, integrated chemoradiation offers a substantial chance of long term survival for patients with limited stage small cell cancer of the bladder. Actuarial 5-year disease free survival and overall survival rates of 70% and 44%, respectively, are reported.

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      The levels of expression of galectin-1, galectin-3, and the Thomsen–Friedenreich antigen and their binding sites decrease as clinical aggressiveness increases in head and neck cancers (pages 2353–2363)

      Georges Choufani, Nathalie Nagy, Sven Saussez, Hadelin Marchant, Pierre Bisschop, Maria Burchert, André Danguy, Stéphane Louryan, Isabelle Salmon, Hans-Joachim Gabius, Robert Kiss and Sergio Hassid

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2353::AID-CNCR25>3.0.CO;2-A

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      The determination of the levels of expression of galectin-1, galectin-3, and their binding sites contribute significant additional prognostic value to the determination of the levels of expression of T antigen and T antigen-binding sites in human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

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      Paclitaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for patients with advanced or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (pages 2364–2369)

      Maha Hussain, Shirish Gadgeel, Omer Kucuk, Wei Du, Walter Salwen and John Ensley

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2364::AID-CNCR26>3.0.CO;2-3

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      Combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil was found to be feasible for patients with advanced or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, with encouraging response rates and survival.

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      18F-fluorodeoxyglucose dual-head positron emission tomography as a procedure for detecting simultaneous primary tumors in cases of head and neck cancer (pages 2370–2377)

      Marcel P. M. Stokkel, Karel G. M. Moons, Frans-Willem ten Broek, Peter P. van Rijk and Gerrit-Jan Hordijk

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2370::AID-CNCR27>3.0.CO;2-B

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      In patients with primary head and neck cancer, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose dual-head positron emission tomography significantly increases the usual detection rates of simultaneous second primary tumors that are currently achieved in clinical practice.

    24. General Topic

      Access to Cancer Care
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      Equitable access to cancer services : A review of barriers to quality care (pages 2378–2390)

      Jeanne S. Mandelblatt, K. Robin Yabroff and Jon F. Kerner

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2378::AID-CNCR28>3.0.CO;2-L

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      Barriers to cancer care have been documented in nearly all settings and populations. More research is needed to develop and test interventions to overcome barriers to care and evaluate the impact of the growth of managed care on access to cancer care for diverse populations.

    25. AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
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      The International Prognostic Index can be used as a guide to treatment decisions regarding patients with human immunodeficiency virus—related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (pages 2391–2397)

      Giuseppe Rossi, Alessandra Donisi, Salvatore Casari, Alessandro Re, GianPiero Cadeo and Giampiero Carosi

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2391::AID-CNCR29>3.0.CO;2-0

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      The optimal treatment strategy for human immunodeficiency virus–related non-Hodgkin lymphoma is still debated. This study identifies the International Prognostic Index as an accurate prognostic indicator in this setting that could be used as a guide to making treatment decisions.

    26. Cancer Detection by Tumor Markers
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      Expression of cytokeratin 20 in the blood of patients with disseminated carcinoma of the pancreas, colon, stomach, and lung (pages 2398–2405)

      Genady Chausovsky, Michael Luchansky, Arie Figer, Jeremy Shapira, Maya Gottfried, Bentley Novis, Galina Bogelman, Ruth Zemer, Shulamit Zimlichman and Ami Klein

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2398::AID-CNCR30>3.0.CO;2-5

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      Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of cytokeratin 20 is a potential biomarker for detecting metastases in the blood of patients with carcinoma of the colon, stomach, and pancreas.

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      Lack of lymphatic vascular specificity of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 in 185 vascular tumors (pages 2406–2412)

      Taina A. Partanen, Kari Alitalo and Markku Miettinen

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2406::AID-CNCR31>3.0.CO;2-E

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      Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-3) was immunohistochemically found to be distributed extensively in benign, borderline, and malignant vascular tumors, and in tumor neovascularization. VEGFR-3 therefore can be considered a novel marker in the evaluation of endothelial cell differentiation in tumors.

    28. Epidemiology
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      Spousal concordance for cancer incidence : A cohort study (pages 2413–2419)

      Gary D. Friedman and Charles P. Quesenberry Jr.

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2413::AID-CNCR32>3.0.CO;2-J

      Among 25,670 married couples followed for up to 31 years, there was little concordance among espoused pairs for the development of cancer.

    29. Patient Use of Treatment Information
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      The addition of an audiocassette recording of a consultation to written recommendations for patients with advanced cancer : A randomized, controlled trial (pages 2420–2425)

      Eduardo Bruera, Edith Pituskin, Kathryn Calder, Catherine M. Neumann and John Hanson

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2420::AID-CNCR33>3.0.CO;2-O

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      The addition of an audiocassette recording of an outpatient consultation to written recommendations for advanced cancer patients is capable of increasing both the overall patient recall of the visit and satisfaction with the outpatient clinical setting. In this study, patients expressed a high level of satisfaction with the audiocassette.

    30. Second Opinion: Pathology
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      Mandatory second opinion surgical pathology at a large referral hospital (pages 2426–2435)

      Joseph D. Kronz, William H. Westra and Jonathan I. Epstein

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2426::AID-CNCR34>3.0.CO;2-3

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      Although the overall percentage of affected cases is not large, the consistent rate of discrepant diagnosis uncovered by second opinion surgical pathology may have an enormous human and financial impact. The authors recommend that review of the original histologic material should be undertaken at one's own institution prior to a major therapeutic endeavor.

      See also pages 2198–220.

  3. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Original Articles
    4. Communication
    5. Erratum
    1. General Topic

      American Joint Committee on Cancer
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      American Joint Committee on Cancer Prognostic Factors Consensus Conference (pages 2436–2446)

      John W. Yarbro, David L. Page, L. Peter Fielding, Edward E. Partridge and Gerald P. Murphy

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2436::AID-CNCR35>3.0.CO;2-#

      This is a report of a Prognostic Factors Consensus Conference held in Tampa, Florida in January 1998. These are recommendations from four working groups of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and are not formal changes to the TNM classification. This work has been forwarded to the AJCC's site specific task forces for consideration and discussion of the 6th edition of the Cancer Staging Manual.

      See also pages 2189–91.

  4. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Original Articles
    4. Communication
    5. Erratum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 2447)

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19991201)86:11<2447::AID-CNCR36>3.0.CO;2-T

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