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Cancer

Cover image for Cancer

15 March 2000

Volume 88, Issue 6

Pages 1277–1493

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Communication
    7. Correspondence
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      Prostate carcinoma practice patterns : What do they tell us about the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of patients with prostate carcinoma? (pages 1277–1281)

      Timothy J. Wilt

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1277::AID-CNCR1>3.0.CO;2-Y

      Variations in prostate carcinoma practice patterns and outcomes exist. The completion of randomized trials is required to determine the preferred strategy for the detection and treatment of localized prostate carcinoma. Implementation of results from completed randomized trials would enhance the delivery of evidence-based androgen suppression therapy for patients with advanced prostate carcinoma.

      See also pages 1445–53.

  2. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Communication
    7. Correspondence
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      The breast carcinoma screening interval is important (pages 1282–1284)

      James S. Michaelson, Daniel B. Kopans and Blake Cady

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1282::AID-CNCR2>3.0.CO;2-X

      Three recent articles have raised the long-standing question of how frequently women should be screened for breast carcinoma. The diversity of recommendations reflects the level of uncertainty regarding this issue.

  3. Original Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Communication
    7. Correspondence
    1. Anatomic Site

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      Histopathologic findings predicting lymph node metastasis and prognosis of patients with superficial esophageal carcinoma : Analysis of 240 surgically resected tumors (pages 1285–1293)

      Yusuke Tajima, Yukihiro Nakanishi, Atsushi Ochiai, Yuji Tachimori, Hoichi Kato, Hiroshi Watanabe, Hajime Yamaguchi, Kimio Yoshimura, Mitsuo Kusano and Tadakazu Shimoda

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1285::AID-CNCR3>3.0.CO;2-R

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      Lymphatic vessel permeation is a good predictor of lymph node metastasis. Lymph node metastasis, and the histologic grade determined by combining the degree of nuclear atypia and growth pattern, are independent prognostic factors for patients with superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Vessel permeation, vertical tumor invasion depth in the submucosal layer, and histologic grade were determined to be important factors for identifying patients who did not require additional surgical treatment after endoscopic mucosal resection.

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      Quality of life in survivors of colorectal carcinoma (pages 1294–1303)

      Scott D. Ramsey, M. Robyn Andersen, Ruth Etzioni, Carol Moinpour, Sue Peacock, Arnold Potosky and Nicole Urban

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1294::AID-CNCR4>3.0.CO;2-M

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      A study was conducted in which subjects with colorectal carcinoma were recruited from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry and asked to complete two self-administered surveys. The results found that those individuals who achieve a long term remission from colorectal carcinoma may experience a relatively high quality of life, although deficits remain for several areas, particularly in those of low socioeconomic status.

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      Quantification of telomerase activity in sporadic colorectal carcinoma : Association with tumor growth and venous invasion (pages 1304–1309)

      Yutaka Shoji, Keigo Yoshinaga, Atsushi Inoue, Akira Iwasaki and Kenichi Sugihara

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1304::AID-CNCR5>3.0.CO;2-8

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      The telomerase activity of 60 surgical specimens of primary colorectal carcinoma was measured quantitatively by a fluorescence-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. This study showed that a high telomerase index may be a risk factor for metastasis of colorectal carcinoma to the liver.

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      Infusional floxuridine-based therapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (pages 1310–1316)

      David M. Reese, Michelle Corry and Eric J. Small

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1310::AID-CNCR6>3.0.CO;2-6

      Thirty-nine patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma were treated with infusional floxuridine and subcutaneous interleukin-2 or interferon-α-2b. Objective tumor responses occurred in 23% of patients, with a median survival of 21 months; toxicity was acceptable.

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      Granulocyte-macrophage–colony stimulating factor in combination immunotherapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma : Results of two Phase II clinical trials (pages 1317–1324)

      Christopher W. Ryan, Nicholas J. Vogelzang, Mary C. Dumas, Timothy Kuzel and Walter M. Stadler

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1317::AID-CNCR7>3.0.CO;2-X

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      Two Phase II studies using granulocyte-macrophage–colony stimulating factor as adjunctive therapy to interleukin-2–based regimens for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma did not have enhanced response rates.

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      Phase I clinical trial of allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (cytoimplant) delivered by endoscopic ultrasound−guided fine-needle injection in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma (pages 1325–1335)

      Kenneth J. Chang, Phuong T. Nguyen, James A. Thompson, Thomas T. Kurosaki, Linda R. Casey, Edwin C. Leung and Gale A. Granger

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1325::AID-CNCR8>3.0.CO;2-T

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      To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published clinical trial to use allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture (cytoimplant), a new form of immune therapy, combined with a novel nonsurgical delivery system (endoscopic ultrasound−guided fine-needle injection) in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreas carcinoma. These preliminary results showed no substantial toxicities, 20%% partial responders, and a median survival of 13.2 months.

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      Patterns of practice survey for nonsmall cell lung carcinoma in the U.S. (pages 1336–1346)

      Hak Choy, Yu Shyr, Anthony J. Cmelak, Peter J. Mohr and David H. Johnson

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1336::AID-CNCR9>3.0.CO;2-M

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      This survey confirms many differences in practice patterns among oncologists in the treatment of patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma and suggests the need for the multidisciplinary management of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.

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      Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in bronchopulmonary carcinomas by Hybrid Capture II : A study of 185 tumors (pages 1347–1352)

      Christine E. Clavel, Béatrice Nawrocki, Brice Bosseaux, Gaelle Poitevin, Isabelle C. Putaud, Christelle C. Mangeonjean, Michel Monteau and Philippe L. Birembaut

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1347::AID-CNCR10>3.0.CO;2-2

      In this study, oncogenic mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected in a small proportion of 185 cases of bronchopulmonary tumor (2.7%) using a liquid hybridization assay, Hybrid Capture II. Thus, it appears unlikely that HPV infection plays a role in the development of the great majority of lung carcinomas.

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      Gemcitabine and vinorelbine in the second-line treatment of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma patients : A Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network Phase II trial (pages 1353–1358)

      John D. Hainsworth, Howard A. Burris III, Sharlene Litchy, Joan B. Erland, Jeremy K. Hon, Joseph E. Brierre and F. Anthony Greco

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1353::AID-CNCR11>3.0.CO;2-A

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      Second-line treatment with gemcitabine and vinorelbine produced an 18% major response rate and was well tolerated by patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.

  4. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Communication
    7. Correspondence
    1. Anatomic Site

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      Deletions in the 13q14 locus in adult lymphoblastic leukemia : Rate of incidence and relevance (pages 1359–1364)

      Ching-Yang Chung, Hagop Kantarjian, Mohammed Haidar, Petr Starostik, Taghi Manshouri, Cristi Gidel, Emil Freireich, Michael Keating and Maher Albitar

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1359::AID-CNCR12>3.0.CO;2-Q

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      The important tumor suppressor gene at the 13q14 locus, which has been reported to be commonly deleted in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, also is deleted in some patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). ALL patients with a deletion at 13q14 have been found to have a shorter survival.

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      Basosquamous carcinoma : Analysis of prognostic factors influencing recurrence (pages 1365–1369)

      Robert C. G. Martin II, Michael J. Edwards, Thomas G. Cawte, Catherine L. Sewell and Kelly M. McMasters

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1365::AID-CNCR13>3.0.CO;2-Y

      Basosquamous carcinoma is a rare malignancy, with features of both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The authors reviewed their recent experience with basosquamous carcinoma to identify prognostic factors influencing recurrence.

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      Evaluation of DNA ploidy and degree of DNA abnormality in benign and malignant melanocytic lesions of the skin using video imaging (pages 1370–1377)

      Henryk Pilch, Susanne Günzel, Uwe Schäffer, Berno Tanner and Michael Heine

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1370::AID-CNCR14>3.0.CO;2-8

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      This study reveals the prognostic and diagnostic relevance of image cytometry to the evaluation of melanocytic lesions of the skin.

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      The expression of Fhit protein is related inversely to disease progression in patients with breast carcinoma (pages 1378–1383)

      Zoran Gatalica, Subodh M. Lele, B. Alan Rampy and Brent A. Norris

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1378::AID-CNCR15>3.0.CO;2-I

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      The expression of Fhit is reduced as the stage of disease progresses in patients with breast carcinoma. The finding is consistent with the tumor suppressor role of Fhit protein noted in breast carcinogenesis.

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      Inhibition of growth of MDA-MB-468 estrogen-independent human breast carcinoma by bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide antagonists RC-3095 and RC-3940-II (pages 1384–1392)

      Zsuzsanna Kahán, Baodong Sun, Andrew V. Schally, José M. Arencibia, Ren-Zhi Cai, Kate Groot and Gábor Halmos

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1384::AID-CNCR16>3.0.CO;2-Q

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      The bombesin (BN)/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) antagonists RC-3940-II and RC-3095 significantly inhibit in vivo growth of estrogen-independent MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma, which expresses mRNA for three BN receptor subtypes (GRP receptor, neuromedin B receptor, and BN receptor subtype-3) and overexpresses epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. BN/GRP antagonists such as RC-3940-II and RC-3095 may be considered as therapy for breast tumors that express BN and EGF receptors.

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      Frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in a population-based sample of young breast carcinoma cases (pages 1393–1402)

      Kathleen E. Malone, Janet R. Daling, Cassandra Neal, Nicola M. Suter, Cecilia O'Brien, Kara Cushing-Haugen, Thora J. Jonasdottir, Jennifer D. Thompson and Elaine A. Ostrander

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1393::AID-CNCR17>3.0.CO;2-P

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      The data from the current study show that 9.5% of women diagnosed with breast carcinoma before age 35 years who were unselected for family history and 12.0% of women diagnosed before age 45 years who had a first-degree family history of breast carcinoma were found to be either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Analysis of particular subsets of cases highlighted features of family history that may specifically affect risk.

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      Microinvasive breast carcinoma : Clinicopathologic analysis of a single institution experience (pages 1403–1409)

      Ruth F. Padmore, Barbara Fowble, John Hoffman, Cindy Rosser, Alexandra Hanlon and Arthur S. Patchefsky

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1403::AID-CNCR18>3.0.CO;2-S

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      Microinvasive carcinoma of the breast (with each focus of invasion ≤ 1 mm) is a disease associated with high grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is not associated with axillary lymph node metastasis, and has a low recurrence rate. Microinvasive carcinoma should be distinguished from small invasive carcinomas (those with at least 1 focus of invasion > 1 mm) associated with ≥ 90% DCIS because these tumors are associated with a poor outcome, especially in younger women.

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      Allelic loss at the 8p22 region as a prognostic factor in large and estrogen receptor negative breast carcinomas (pages 1410–1416)

      Yoshihito Utada, Shunsuke Haga, Tetsuro Kajiwara, Fujio Kasumi, Goi Sakamoto, Yusuke Nakamura and Mitsuru Emi

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1410::AID-CNCR19>3.0.CO;2-X

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      Among the 298 breast carcinoma patients with carcinomas tested for 8p22 markers, those whose tumors had lost an allele at 8p22 had a significantly higher risk of postoperative mortality than those whose tumors retained both alleles, suggesting the potential of this allelic loss as a negative prognostic indicator to guide the postoperative management of patients.

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      The feasibility of minimally invasive surgery for Stage IIA, IIB, and IIIA breast carcinoma patients after tumor downstaging with induction chemotherapy (pages 1417–1424)

      Georges Vlastos, Nadeem Q. Mirza, Jeffrey T. Lenert, Kelly K. Hunt, Fred C. Ames, Barry W. Feig, Merrick I. Ross, Aman U. Buzdar and S. Eva Singletary

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1417::AID-CNCR20>3.0.CO;2-1

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      Induction chemotherapy with either paclitaxel or a combination of fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide was shown to be effective in downstaging both the primary tumor and axillary metastases in Stage IIA, IIB, and IIIA breast carcinoma patients. Although residual microscopic disease will still require additional local therapy, minimally invasive surgical approaches should be feasible for such patients.

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      Analysis of clinicopathologic prognostic factors for 157 uterine sarcomas and evaluation of a grading score validated for soft tissue sarcoma (pages 1425–1431)

      Patricia Pautier, Catherine Genestie, Annie Rey, Philippe Morice, Béatrice Roche, Catherine Lhommé, Christine Haie-Meder and Pierre Duvillard

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1425::AID-CNCR21>3.0.CO;2-3

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      Uterine sarcomas, except for low grade stromal sarcomas, are associated with a poor prognosis. The grading score validated by the French Federation of Anticancer Centers for soft tissue sarcoma was not a prognostic factor in this study.

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      Clinical significance of serum and ascitic p53 autoantibodies in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (pages 1432–1437)

      Burghard Abendstein, Christian Marth, Elisabeth Müller-Holzner, Martin Widschwendter, Günter Daxenbichler and Alain G. Zeimet

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1432::AID-CNCR22>3.0.CO;2-8

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      Ascitic, but not serum, anti-p53 immunostatus is of relevance in predicting the disease free survival of patients with ovarian carcinoma.

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      Oral estramustine and cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate carcinoma : A phase II study (pages 1438–1444)

      Sergio Bracarda, Maurizio Tonato, Paolo Rosi, Verena De Angelis, Ettore Mearini, Stefano Cesaroni, Pierfrancesco Fornetti and Massimo Porena

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1438::AID-CNCR23>3.0.CO;2-O

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      A regimen of oral estramustine and cyclophosphamide showed encouraging results (response rate of 43.7%) and good tolerance in a group of patients for whom, to the authors' knowledge, therapeutic options are scarce and poorly documented. Criteria for response evaluation were a posttherapy decline ≥ 50% in the prostate specific antigen level combined with improvement (or no worsening) of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and relief of bone pain (if present).

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      Prostate carcinoma trends in three counties in Sweden 1987–1996 : Results from a population-based National Cancer Register (pages 1445–1453)

      Gabriel Sandblom, Monika Dufmats, Kerstin Nordenskjöld, Eberhard Varenhorst and for the South-East Region Prostate Cancer Group

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1445::AID-CNCR24>3.0.CO;2-T

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      Similar to trends reported in the U.S., the incidence rate of prostate carcinoma in the southeast region of Sweden reached a peak in 1993, followed by a slow decrease. However, there are large differences in the distribution of treatments, with a tendency toward more conservative treatment in the southeast region.

      See also pages 1277–81.

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      Quality-of-life outcomes for men with prostate carcinoma detected by screening (pages 1454–1463)

      Deborah S. Smith, Gustavo F. Carvalhal, Kay Schneider, Julie Krygiel, Yan Yan and William J. Catalona

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1454::AID-CNCR25>3.0.CO;2-S

      In men with prostate carcinoma detected by screening, general quality-of-life outcomes are encouraging, and morbidity related to urinary function may be less severe than previously believed. However, in this study the majority of men experienced decrements in sexual function.

    15. General Topic

      Human Papillomavirus-Associated Carcinomas
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      Human papillomavirus-associated carcinomas in Hawaii and the mainland U.S. (pages 1464–1469)

      Morten Frisch and Marc T. Goodman

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1464::AID-CNCR26>3.0.CO;2-O

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      In the current study the authors document that Asian/Pacific Islanders in Hawaii are at considerably lower risk than whites of developing human papillomavirus-associated squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva/vagina, anus, penis, and tonsils. Compared with the U.S. in general, Hawaii emerges as an area with a high incidence rate of anal carcinoma among unmarried, possibly homosexual/bisexual, white males.

    16. Pediatric Oncology
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      Inverse association between age at the time of radiation exposure and extent of disease in cases of radiation-induced childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus (pages 1470–1476)

      Jamshid Farahati, Ewgeni P. Demidchik, Johannes Biko and Christoph Reiners

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1470::AID-CNCR27>3.0.CO;2-W

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      Age at radiation exposure has an inverse association with extent of disease, expressed by TNM classification, in cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma that developed after the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986.

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      Limitations of the World Health Organization classification of childhood supratentorial astrocytic tumors (pages 1477–1483)

      Floyd H. Gilles, William D. Brown, Alan Leviton, C. Jane Tavaré, Lester Adelman, Lucy B. Rorke, Richard L. Davis, Tessa E. Hedley-Whyte and for the Childhood Brain Tumor Consortium

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1477::AID-CNCR28>3.0.CO;2-8

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      The classification of brain tumors according to the specifications of the World Health Organization fails to separate childhood supratentorial astroglial tumors into prognostically homogeneous groups. Better separation is achieved by designating specific histologic features for the diagnoses of astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, and glioblastoma multiforme.

  5. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Communication
    7. Correspondence
    1. General Topic

      American Joint Committee on Cancer
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      A new American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma (pages 1484–1491)

      Charles M. Balch, Antonio C. Buzaid, Michael B. Atkins, Natale Cascinelli, Daniel G. Coit, Irvin D. Fleming, Alan Houghton Jr., John M. Kirkwood, Martin F. Mihm, Donald L. Morton, Douglas Reintgen, Merrick I. Ross, Arthur Sober, Seng-Jaw Soong, John A. Thompson, John F. Thompson, Jeffrey E. Gershenwald, Kelly M. McMasters and for the AJCC Melanoma Staging Committee

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1484::AID-CNCR29>3.0.CO;2-D

      The American Joint Committee on Cancer Melanoma Staging Committee proposes major changes to the TNM classification and the stage grouping for cutaneous melanoma. Analyses of prognostic factors by major cooperative groups and cancer centers worldwide contributed data and clinical experience to the simplified and evidence-based recommendations.

  6. Correspondence

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Commentary
    4. Original Article
    5. Original Articles
    6. Communication
    7. Correspondence
    1. General Topic

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      Increased incidence rates but no space–Time clustering of childhood astrocytoma in Sweden, 1973–1992 : A population-based study of pediatric brain tumors (pages 1492–1493)

      Malcolm A. Smith, Brois Freidlin, Lynn A. G. Ries and Richard Simon

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1492::AID-CNCR30>3.0.CO;2-7

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      Author reply (page 1493)

      Ulf Hjalmars

      Version of Record online: 20 NOV 2000 | DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(20000315)88:6<1493::AID-CNCR31>3.0.CO;2-1

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