• 1
    Bruera E, Kuehn N, Miller MJ, Selmser P, Macmillan K. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS): a simple method for the assessment of palliative care patients. J Palliat Care 1991; 7: 69.
  • 2
    Portenoy RK, Thaler HT, Kornblith AB, Lepore JM, Friedlander-Klar H, Kiyasu E, et al. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale: an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics, and distress. Eur J Cancer 1996; 30A: 122636.
  • 3
    Cella DF, Tulsky DS, Gray G, Sarafian B, Linn E, Bonomi A, et al. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale: development and validation of the general measure. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11: 5709.
  • 4
    Daut RL, Cleeland CS, Flanery RC. Development of the Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire to assess pain in cancer and other disease. Pain 1983; 17: 197210.
  • 5
    Karnofsky DA, Burchenal JH. The clinical evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. In: MacLeodCM, editor. Evaluation of chemotherapeutic agents. New York: Columbia University Press, 1949: 191205.
  • 6
    Stata Statistical Software. Release 5.0. College Station, TX: Stata Corporation, 1997.
  • 7
    Donnelly S, Walsh TD. Quality of life assessment in advanced cancer. Palliat Med 1996; 10: 27583.
  • 8
    Kirshner B, Guyatt G. A methodologic framework for assessing health indices. J Chronic Dis 1985; 38: 2736.
  • 9
    Hjermstad MJ, Fossa SD, Bjordal K, Kaasa S. Test/retest study of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire. J Clin Oncol 1995; 13: 124954.
  • 10
    Weitzner MA, Meyers CA, Gelke CK, Byrne KS, Cella DF, Levin VA. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) Scale. Development of a brain subscale and revalidation of the general version (FACT-G) in patients with primary brain tumors. Cancer 1995;75: 115161.
  • 11
    McCormack HM, Horne DJ, Sheather S. Clinical applications of visual analogue scales: a critical review. Psychol Med 1988; 18: 100719.
  • 12
    Conno FD, Caraceni A, Gamba A, Mariani L, Abbattista A, Brunelli C, et al. Pain measurement in cancer patients: a comparison of six methods. Pain 1994; 57: 1616.
  • 13
    Serlin RC, Mendoza TR, Nakamura Y, Edwards K, Cleeland CS. When is cancer pain mild moderate or severe? Grading pain severity by its interference with function. Pain 1995;61: 27784.
  • 14
    Hearst E. Psychology and nothing. AmSci 1991; 79: 43243.
  • 15
    Collins SL, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. The visual analogue pain intensity scale: what is moderate pain in millimetres? Pain 1997; 72: 957.
  • 16
    Ahles TA, Ruckdeschel JC, Blanchard EB. Cancer-related pain. II. Assessment with visual analogue scales. J Psychosom Res 1983;28: 1214.
  • 17
    Sze FK, Chung TK, Wong E, Lam KK, Lo R, Woo J. Pain in Chinese cancer patients under palliative care. Palliat Med 1998; 12: 2718.
  • 18
    DeLoach LJ, Higgins MS, Caplan AB, Stiff JL. The visual analog scale in the immediate postoperative period: intrasubject variabiity and correlation with a numeric scale. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 1026.
  • 19
    Giorgi F, Cellerino R, Gramazio A, Tummarello D, Menichetti ET, Giordani P, et al. Assessing quality of life in patients with cancer: a comparison of a visual analogue and a categorical model. Am J Clin Oncol 1996; 19: 3949.
  • 20
    Kremer E, Atkinson JH, Ignelzi RJ. Measurement of pain: patient preference does not confound pain measurement. Pain 1981; 10: 2418.
  • 21
    Higginson I, Wade AM, McCarthy M. Effectiveness of two palliative support teams. J Public Health Med 1992; 14: 506.
  • 22
    Bruera E, MacDonald S. Audit methods: the Edmonton symptom assessment system. In: HigginsonI, editor. Clinical audit in palliative care. Oxford: Radcliffe Medical Press, 1993: 6177.
  • 23
    De Haes J, van Knippenberg F, Neijt J. Measuring psychological and physical distress in cancer patients: structure and application of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Br J Cancer 1990; 62: 10348.
  • 24
    Philip J, Smith WB, Craft P, Lickiss N. Concurrent validity of the modified Edmonton Symptom Assessment System with the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist and the Brief Pain Inventory. Support Care Cancer 1998; 6: 53941.
  • 25
    Rees E, Hardy J, Ling J, Bradley K, A'Hern R. The use of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) within a palliative care unit in the UK. Palliat Med 1998; 12: 7582.