• Bosch, F. X., Manos, M. M., Muñoz, N., Sherman, M., Jansen, A. M., Peto, J., Schiffman, M. H., Moreno, V., Kurman, R. and Shah, K. V., Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. J. nat. Cancer Inst., 87, 796802 (1995).
  • Boyes, D. A., Morrison, B., Knox, E. G., Draper, G. J. and Miller, A. B., A cohort study of cervical-cancer screening in British Columbia. Clin. invest. Med., 5, 129 (1982).
  • Cannistra, S. A. and Niloff, J. M., Cancer of the uterine cervix. New Engl. J. Med., 334, 10301038 (1996).
  • Coppleson, L. W. and Brown, B., Estimation of the screening error rate from the observed detection rates in repeated cervical cytology. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 119, 953958 (1974).
  • Cuzick, J., Szarewski, A., Terry, G., Ho, L., Hanby, A., Maddox, P., Anderson, M., Kocjan, G., Steele, S. T. and Guillebaud, J., Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening. Lancet, 345, 15331536 (1995).
  • De Roda Husman, A. M., Walboomers, J. M. M., Van den Brule, A. J. C., Meijer, C. J. L. M., and Snijders, P. J. F., The use of general primers GP5 and GP6 elongated at their 3′ ends with adjacent highly conserved sequences improves human papillomavirus detection by PCR. J. gen. Vir., 76, 10571062 (1995).
  • Gustafsson, L. and Adami, H. O., Natural history of cervical neoplasia: consistent results obtained by an identification technique. Brit. J. Cancer, 60, 132141 (1989).
  • IARC Working Group on Evaluation of Cervical-Cancer Screening Programmes, Screening for squamous cervical cancer: duration of low risk after negative results of cervical cytology and its implication for screening policies. Brit. med. J., 293, 659664 (1986).
  • IARC Working Group, Human papillomaviruses, IARC Scientific Publication, 64, IARC, Lyon (1995).
  • Jacobs, M. V., De Roda Husman, A. M., Van den Brule, A. J. C., Snijders, P. J. F., Meijer, C. J. L. M., and Walboomers, J. M. M., Group-specific differentiation between high- and low-risk human-papillomavirus genotypes by general primer-mediated PCR and two cocktails of oligonucleotide probes. J. clin. Microbiol., 33, 901905 (1995).
  • Jenkins, D., Sherlaw-Johnson, C. and Gallivan, S., Can papillomavirus testing be used to improve cervical-cancer screening? Int. J. Cancer, 65, 768773 (1996).
  • Koss, L. G., The Papanicolaou test for cervical-cancer detection: a triumph and a tragedy. J. Amer. med. Ass., 261, 737743 (1989).
  • Koutsky, L. A., Holmes, K. K., Critchlow, C. W., Stevens, C. E., Paavonen, J., Beckmann, A. M., DeRouen, T. A., Galloway, D. A., Vernon, D. and Kiviat, N. B., A cohort study of the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or 3 in relation to papillomavirus infection. New Engl. J. Med., 327, 12721278 (1992).
  • Meijer, C. J. L. M., Van den Brule, A. J. C., Snijders, P. J. F., Helmerhorst, Th. J. M., Kenemans, P. and Walboomers, J. M. M., Detection of human papillomavirus in cervical scrapes by the polymerase chain reaction in relation to cytology: possible implications for cervical-cancer screening. In: N.Muñoz, F. X.Bosch, K. V.Shah and A.Meheus (eds.), The epidemiology of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer, IARC Scientific Publication 119, pp. 271281, IARC, Lyon (1992).
  • Remmink, A. J., Walboomers, J. M. M., Helmerhorst, Th. J. M., Voorhorst, F. J., Rozendaal, L., Risse, E. K. J., Meijer, C. J. L. M., and Kenemans, P., The presence of persistent high-risk HPV genotypes in dysplastic cervical lesions is associated with progressive disease: natural history up to 36 months. Int. J. Cancer, 61, 306311 (1995).
  • Schiffman, M. H. and Brinton, L. A., The epidemiology of cervical carcinogenesis. Cancer, 76, 18881901 (1995).
  • Sherman, M. E., Schiffman, M. H., Lörincz, A. T., Manos, M. M., Scott, D. R., Kurman, R. J., Kiviat, N. B., Stoler, M., Glass, A. G. and Rush, B. B., Toward objective quality assurance in cervical pathology: correlation of cytopathologic diagnoses with detection of high-risk human papillomavirus types. Amer. J. clin. Pathol, 102, 182187 (1994).
  • Van Oortmarssen, G. J. and Habbema, J. D. F., Epidemiological evidence for age-dependent regression of pre-invasive cervical cancer. Brit. J. Cancer, 64, 559565 (1991).
  • Van Ranst, M., Kaplan, J. B. and Burk, R. D., Phylogenetic classification of human papillomaviruses: correlation with clinical manifestations. J. gen. Virol., 73, 26532660 (1992).
  • Vooijs, G. P., De advisering bij afwijkende bevindingen van cytologisch onderzoek van de cervix uteri. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneesk., 131, 16621663 (1987).
  • Walboomers, J. M. M., De Roda Husman, A. M., Snijders, P. J. F., Stel, H. V., Risse, E. K. J., Helmerhorst, Th. J. M., Voorhorst, F. J. and Meijer, C. J. L. M., Detection of genital human papillomavirus infections. Critical review of methods and prevalence studies in relation to cervical cancer. In: P. L.Stern and M. A.Stanley (eds.), Human papillomaviruses and cervical cancer. Biology and immunology, pp. 4171, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1994).