In a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer conducted in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver between 1989 and 1993, a total of 640 newly incident cases and 639 aged-matched population controls were interviewed as to their family history of prostate cancer as well as nutritional and other lifestyle and environmental factors. In total, 94 cases (15%) reported at least one blood relative with a family history, as compared with 32 (5%) of controls, giving a relative risk of 3.32 (95% confidence interval 2.18–5.05). The association was very consistent across all 3 centers, and was similar for each specific type of relative considered (fathers or brothers). Thus, this study provides further evidence of familial aggregation of prostate cancer, and suggests the possibility that part or all of such clustering could be related to inherited genetic patterns; if so, the availability of screening procedures for the disease offers the possibility of useful early intervention in individuals with such inherited susceptibility. Int. J. Cancer 70:679–681, 1997.