Cancers of the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder, extra-hepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, are relatively uncommon malignancies. From 1972 to 1994, biliary tract cancer was the most rapidly rising malignancy in Shanghai, China, with a 119% increase in men and 124% in women. The increase in incidence was seen for all 3 subsites, both sexes, and all age groups. Future studies are needed to identify reasons for the large increases in these rates. Int. J. Cancer 75:368–370, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.