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LITERATURE CITED

  • 1
    Pui CH, Evans WE. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:605615. Medline
  • 2
    Pui CH. Childhood leukemias. N Engl J Med 1995; 332:16181630. Medline
  • 3
    Preti A, Kantarjian HM. Management of adult acute lymphocytic leukemia: present issues and key challenges. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12:13121322. Medline
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    Bloomfield CD, Herzig GP, Peterson BA, Wolff SN. Long-term survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia: updated results from two trials evaluating postinduction chemotherapy. Cancer 1997; 80:21862190. Medline
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    Meadows AT, Robison LL, Neglia JP, Sather H, Hammond D. Potential long-term toxic effects in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 1989; 321:18301831. Medline
  • 6
    Pui CH, Ribeiro RC, Hancock ML, Rivera GK, Evans WE, Raimondi SC, Head DR, Behm FG, Mahmoud MH, Sandlund JT. Acute myeloid leukemia in children treated with epipodophyllotoxins for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 1991; 325:16821687. Medline
  • 7
    Pui CH, Relling MV, Behm FG, Hancock ML, Boyett JM, Raimondi SC, Krance RA, Mahmoud HH, Ribeiro RC, Sandlund JT. L-asparaginase may potentiate the leukemogenic effect of the epipodophyllotoxins. Leukemia 1995; 9:16801684. Medline
  • 8
    Lipshultz SE, Colan SD, Gelber RD, Perez-Atayde AR, Sallan SE, Sanders SP. Late cardiac effects of doxorubicin therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. N Engl J Med 1991; 324:808815. Medline
  • 9
    Van Dongen-Melman JE, De Groot A, van Dongen JJ, Verhulst FC, Hahlen K. Cranial irradiation is the major cause of learning problems in children treated for leukemia and lymphoma: a comparative study. Leukemia 1997; 11:11971200. Medline
  • 10
    Pui CH, Campana D, Crist WM. Toward a clinically useful classification of the acute leukemias. Leukemia 1995; 9:21542157. Medline
  • 11
    Secker-Walker LM, Swansbury GJ, Hardisty RM, Sallan SE, Garson OM, Sakurai M, Lawler SD. Cytogenetics of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children as a factor in the prediction of long-term survival. Br J Haematol 1982; 52:389399. Medline
  • 12
    Rubnitz JE, Downing JR, Pui CH, Shurtleff SA, Raimondi SC, Evans WE, Head DR, Crist WM, Rivera GK, Hancock ML, Boyett JM, Buijs A, Grosveld G, Behm FG. TEL gene rearrangement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a new genetic marker with prognostic significance. J Clin Oncol 1997; 15:11501157. Medline
  • 13
    Bloomfield CD, Shuma C, Regal L, Philip PP, Hossfeld DK, Hagemeijer AM, Garson OM, Peterson BA, Sakurai M, Alimena G, Berger R, Rowley JD, Ruutu T, Mitelman F, Dewald GW, Swansbury J. Long-term survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a third follow-up of the Fourth International Workshop on Chromosomes in Leukemia. Cancer 1997; 80:21912198. Medline
  • 14
    Campana D, Pui CH. Detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia: methodologic advances and clinical significance. Blood 1995; 85:14161434. Medline
  • 15
    Rambaldi A, Borleri G, Dotti G, Bellavita P, Amaru R, Biondi A, Barbui T. Innovative two-step negative selection of granulocyte colony- stimulating factor-mobilized circulating progenitor cells: adequacy for autologous and allogeneic transplantation. Blood 1998; 91:21892196. Medline
  • 16
    Bradstock KF, Papageorgiou ES, Janossy G, Hoffbrand AV, Willoughby ML, Roberts PD, Bollum FJ. Detection of leukaemic lymphoblasts in CSF by immunofluorescence for terminal transferase. Lancet 1980; 1:1144. Medline
  • 17
    Hooijkaas H, Hahlen K, Adriaansen HJ, Dekker I, van Zanen GE, van Dongen JJ. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-positive cells in cerebrospinal fluid and development of overt CNS leukemia: a 5-year follow-up study in 113 children with a TdT-positive leukemia or non- Hodgkin's lymphoma. Blood 1989; 74:416422. Medline
  • 18
    Janossy G, Bollum FJ, Bradstock KF, McMichael A, Rapson N, Greaves MF. Terminal transferase-positive human bone marrow cells exhibit the antigenic phenotype of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Immunol 1979; 123:15251529. Medline
  • 19
    Janossy G, Hoffbrand AV, Greaves MF, Ganeshaguru K, Pain C, Bradstock KF, Prentice HG, Kay HE, Lister TA. Terminal transferase enzyme assay and immunological membrane markers in the diagnosis of leukaemia: a multiparameter analysis of 300 cases. Br J Haematol 1980; 44:221234. Medline
  • 20
    Bradstock KF, Janossy G, Hoffbrand AV, Ganeshaguru K, Llewellin P, Prentice HG, Bollum FJ. Immunofluorescent and biochemical studies of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in treated acute leukaemia. Br J Haematol 1981; 47:121131. Medline
  • 21
    Bradstock KF, Janossy G, Pizzolo G, Hoffbrand AV, McMichael A, Pilch JR, Milstein C, Beverley P, Bollum FJ. Subpopulations of normal and leukemic human thymocytes: an analysis with the use of monoclonal antibodies. J Natl Cancer Inst 1980; 65:3342. Medline
  • 22
    Janossy G, Bollum FJ, Bradstock KF, Ashley J. Cellular phenotypes of normal and leukemic hemopoietic cells determined by analysis with selected antibody combinations. Blood 1980; 56:430441. Medline
  • 23
    Asma GE, van den Bergh RL, Vossen JM. Regeneration of TdT+, pre-B, and B cells in bone marrow after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 1987; 43:865870. Medline
  • 24
    Smedmyr B, Bengtsson M, Jakobsson A, Simonsson B, Oberg G, Totterman TH. Regeneration of CALLA (CD10+), TdT+ and double-positive cells in the bone marrow and blood after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Eur J Haematol 1991; 46:146151. Medline
  • 25
    Froehlich TW, Buchanan GR, Cornet JA, Sartain PA, Smith RG. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-containing cells in peripheral blood: implications for the surveillance of patients with lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoma in remission. Blood 1981; 58:214220. Medline
  • 26
    Barr RD, Koekebakker M. Detection of circulating ‘terminal transferase-positive’ cells does not predict relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Res 1984; 8:10511055. Medline
  • 27
    Ryan DH, van Dongen JJ. Detection of residual disease in acute leukemia using immunological markers. Cancer Treat Res 1988; 38:173207. Medline
  • 28
    Sang BC, Shi L, Dias P, Liu L, Wei J, Wang ZX, Monell CR, Behm F, Gruenwald S. Monoclonal antibodies specific to the acute lymphoblastic leukemia t(1;19)-associated E2A/pbx1 chimeric protein: characterization and diagnostic utility. Blood 1997; 89:29092914. Medline
  • 29
    Smith FO, Rauch C, Williams DE, March CJ, Arthur D, Hilden J, Lampkin BC, Buckley JD, Buckley CV, Woods WG, Dinndorf PA, Sorensen P, Kersey J, Hammond D, Bernstein ID. The human homologue of rat NG2, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, is not expressed on the cell surface of normal hematopoietic cells but is expressed by acute myeloid leukemia blasts from poor-prognosis patients with abnormalities of chromosome band 11q23. Blood 1996; 87:11231133. Medline
  • 30
    Behm FG, Smith FO, Raimondi SC, Pui CH, Bernstein ID. Human homologue of the rat chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, NG2, detected by monoclonal antibody 7.1, identifies childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias with t(4;11)(q21;q23) or t(11;19)(q23;p13) and MLL gene rearrangements. Blood 1996; 87:11341139. Medline
  • 31
    Mori T, Sugita K, Suzuki T, Okazaki T, Manabe A, Hosoya R, Mizutani S, Kinoshita A, Nakazawa S. A novel monoclonal antibody, KOR-SA3544 which reacts to Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with high sensitivity. Leukemia 1995; 9:12331239. Medline
  • 32
    Engel H, Goodacre A, Keyhani A, Jiang S, Van NT, Kimmel M, Sanchez-Williams G, Andreeff M. Minimal residual disease in acute myelogenous leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes: a follow-up of patients in clinical remission. Br J Haematol 1997; 99:6475. Medline
  • 33
    Nowak R, Oelschlaegel U, Schuler U, Zengler H, Hofmann R, Ehninger G, Andreeff M. Sensitivity of combined DNA/immunophenotype flow cytometry for the detection of low levels of aneuploid lymphoblastic leukemia cells in bone marrow. Cytometry 1997; 30:4753. Medline
  • 34
    Campana D, Thompson JS, Amlot P, Brown S, Janossy G. The cytoplasmic expression of CD3 antigens in normal and malignant cells of the T lymphoid lineage. J Immunol 1987; 138:648655. Medline
  • 35
    Lavabre-Bertrand T, Janossy G, Ivory K, Peters R, Secker-Walker L, Porwit-MacDonald A. Leukemia-associated changes identified by quantitative flow cytometry: I. CD10 expression. Cytometry 1994; 18:209217. Medline
  • 36
    Behm FG, Raimondi SC, Schell MJ, Look AT, Rivera GK, Pui CH. Lack of CD45 antigen on blast cells in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is associated with chromosomal hyperdiploidy and other favorable prognostic features. Blood 1992; 79:10111016. Medline
  • 37
    Dworzak MN, Fritsch G, Fleischer C, Printz D, Froschl G, Buchinger P, Mann G, Gadner H. Comparative phenotype mapping of normal vs. malignant pediatric B- lymphopoiesis unveils leukemia-associated aberrations. Exp Hematol 1998; 26:305313. Medline
  • 38
    Adriaansen HJ, Jacobs BC, Kappers-Klunne MC, Hahlen K, Hooijkaas H, van Dongen JJ. Detection of residual disease in AML patients by use of double immunological marker analysis for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and myeloid markers. Leukemia 1993; 7:472481. Medline
  • 39
    Reading CL, Estey EH, Huh YO, Claxton DF, Sanchez G, Terstappen LW, O'Brien MC, Baron S, Deisseroth AB. Expression of unusual immunophenotype combinations in acute myelogenous leukemia. Blood 1993; 81:30833090. Medline
  • 40
    Macedo A, Orfao A, Gonzalez M, Vidriales MB, Lopez-Berges MC, Martinez A, San Miguel JF. Immunological detection of blast cell subpopulations in acute myeloblastic leukemia at diagnosis: implications for minimal residual disease studies. Leukemia 1995; 9:993998. Medline
  • 41
    Porwit-MacDonald A, Janossy G, Ivory K, Swirsky D, Peters R, Wheatley K, Walker H, Turker A, Goldstone AH, Burnett A. Leukemia-associated changes identified by quantitative flow cytometry. IV. CD34 overexpression in acute myelogenous leukemia M2 with t(8;21). Blood 1996; 87:11621169. Medline
  • 42
    Coustan-Smith E, Behm FG, Hurwitz CA, Rivera GK, Campana D. N-CAM (CD56) expression by CD34+ malignant myeloblasts has implications for minimal residual disease detection in acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia 1993; 7:853858. Medline
  • 43
    Hurwitz CA, Raimondi SC, Head D, Krance R, Mirro JJ, Kalwinsky DK, Ayers GD, Behm FG. Distinctive immunophenotypic features of t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloblastic leukemia in children. Blood 1992; 80:31823188. Medline
  • 44
    Baer MR, Stewart CC, Lawrence D, Arthur DC, Byrd JC, Davey FR, Schiffer CA, Bloomfield CD. Expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule CD56 is associated with short remission duration and survival in acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22). Blood 1997; 90:16431648. Medline
  • 45
    Lanza F, Castoldi GL, Castagnari B, Todd RF, Moretti S, Spisani S, Latorraca A, Focarile E, Roberti MG, Traniello S. Expression and functional role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in normal and acute leukaemic cells. Br J Haematol 1998; 103:110123. Medline
  • 46
    Bradstock KF, Janossy G, Tidman N, Papageorgiou ES, Prentice HG, Willoughby M, Hoffbrand AV. Immunological monitoring of residual disease in treated thymic acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Leuk Res 1981; 5:301309. Medline
  • 47
    van Dongen JJ, Breit TM, Adriaansen HJ, Beishuizen A, Hooijkaas H. Detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia by immunological marker analysis and polymerase chain reaction. Leukemia 1992; 6 Suppl 1:4759. Medline
  • 48
    Janossy G, Coustan-Smith E, Campana D. The reliability of cytoplasmic CD3 and CD22 antigen expression in the immunodiagnosis of acute leukemia: a study of 500 cases. Leukemia 1989; 3:170181. Medline
  • 49
    Slaper-Cortenbach IC, Admiraal LG, Kerr JM, van Leeuwen EF, von dem Borne AE, Tetteroo PA. Flow-cytometric detection of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and other intracellular antigens in combination with membrane antigens in acute lymphatic leukemias. Blood 1988; 72:16391644. Medline
  • 50
    Drach D, Drach J, Glassl H, Gattringer C, Huber H. Flow cytometric detection of cytoplasmic antigens in acute leukemias: implications for lineage assignment. Leuk Res 1993; 17:455461. Medline
  • 51
    Schmid I, Uittenbogaart CH, Giorgi JV. A gentle fixation and permeabilization method for combined cell surface and intracellular staining with improved precision in DNA quantification. Cytometry 1991; 12:279285. Medline
  • 52
    Pizzolo G, Vincenzi C, Nadali G, Veneri D, Vinante F, Chilosi M, Basso G, Connelly MC, Janossy G. Detection of membrane and intracellular antigens by flow cytometry following ORTHO PermeaFix fixation. Leukemia 1994; 8:672676. Medline
  • 53
    Knapp W, Strobl H, Majdic O. Flow cytometric analysis of cell-surface and intracellular antigens in leukemia diagnosis. Cytometry 1994; 18:187198. Medline
  • 54
    Horvatinovich JM, Sparks SD, Borowitz MJ. Detection of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase by flow cytometry: a three color method. Cytometry 1994; 18:228230. Medline
  • 55
    Groeneveld K, te Marvelde JG, van den Beemd MW, Hooijkaas H, van Dongen JJ. Flow cytometric detection of intracellular antigens for immunophenotyping of normal and malignant leukocytes. Leukemia 1996; 10:13831389. Medline
  • 56
    Nakase K, Sartor M, Bradstock, . Detection of myeloperoxidase by flow cytometry in acute leukemia. Cytometry 1998; 34:198202. Medline
  • 57
    Gross HJ, Verwer B, Houck D, Recktenwald D. Detection of rare cells at a frequency of one per million by flow cytometry. Cytometry 1993; 14:519526. Medline
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    Gross HJ, Verwer B, Houck D, Hoffman RA, Recktenwald D. Model study detecting breast cancer cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at frequencies as low as 10(-7). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92:537541. Medline
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    Rosenblatt JI, Hokanson JA, McLaughlin SR, Leary JF. Theoretical basis for sampling statistics useful for detecting and isolating rare cells using flow cytometry and cell sorting. Cytometry 1997; 27:233238. Medline
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    Rehse MA, Corpuz S, Heimfeld S, Minie M, Yachimiak D. Use of fluorescence threshold triggering and high-speed flow cytometry for rare event detection. Cytometry 1995; 22:317322. Medline
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    Terstappen LW, Loken MR. Five-dimensional flow cytometry as a new approach for blood and bone marrow differentials. Cytometry 1988; 9:548556. Medline
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    Coustan-Smith E, Behm FG, Sanchez J, Boyett JM, Hancock ML, Raimondi SC, Rubnitz JE, Rivera GK, Sandlund JT, Pui CH, Campana D. Immunological detection of minimal residual disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet 1998; 351:550554. Medline
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    Clement LT, Tilden AB, Dunlap NE. Analysis of the monocyte Fc receptors and antibody-mediated cellular interactions required for the induction of T cell proliferation by anti- T3 antibodies. J Immunol 1985; 135:165171. Medline
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    Mathe G, Schwarzenberg L, Mery AM, Cattan A, Schneider M, Amiel JL, Schlumberger JR, Poisson J, Wajcner G. Extensive histological and cytological survey of patients with acute leukaemia in“complete remission”. Br Med J 1966; 5488:640642. Medline
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    Martens AC, Schultz FW, Hagenbeek A. Nonhomogeneous distribution of leukemia in the bone marrow during minimal residual disease. Blood 1987; 70:10731078. Medline
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    Sykes PJ, Brisco MJ, Hughes E, Snell LE, Dolman G, Neoh SH, Peng LM, Toogood I, Venables WN, Morley AA. Minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia quantified by aspirate and trephine: is the disease multifocal? Br J Haematol 1998; 103:6065. Medline
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    Neglia JP, Meadows AT, Robison LL, Kim TH, Newton WA, Ruymann FB, Sather HN, Hammond GD. Second neoplasms after acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. N Engl J Med 1991; 325:13301336. Medline
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    Stass S, Mirro J, Melvin S, Pui CH, Murphy SB, Williams D. Lineage switch in acute leukemia. Blood 1984; 64:701706. Medline
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    Gagnon GA, Childs CC, LeMaistre A, Keating M, Cork A, Trujillo JM, Nellis K, Freireich E, Stass SA. Molecular heterogeneity in acute leukemia lineage switch. Blood 1989; 74:20882095. Medline
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    Beishuizen A, Verhoeven MA, Van Wering ER, Hahlen K, Hooijkaas H, van Dongen JJ. Analysis of Ig and T-cell receptor genes in 40 childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias at diagnosis and subsequent relapse: implications for the detection of minimal residual disease by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Blood 1994; 83:22382247. Medline
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    Borella L, Casper JT, Lauer SJ. Shifts in expression of cell membrane phenotypes in childhood lymphoid malignancies at relapse. Blood 1979; 54:6471. Medline
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    Greaves M, Paxton A, Janossy G, Pain C, Johnson S, Lister TA. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia associated antigen. III Alterations in expression during treatment and in relapse. Leuk Res 1980; 4:114. Medline
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    Lauer S, Piaskowski V, Camitta B, Casper J. Bone marrow and extramedullary variations of cell membrane antigen expression in childhood lymphoid neoplasias at relapse. Leuk Res 1982; 6:769774. Medline
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    Pui CH, Raimondi SC, Head DR, Schell MJ, Rivera GK, Mirro JJ, Crist WM, Behm FG. Characterization of childhood acute leukemia with multiple myeloid and lymphoid markers at diagnosis and at relapse. Blood 1991; 78:13271337. Medline
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    Abshire TC, Buchanan GR, Jackson JF, Shuster JJ, Brock B, Head D, Behm F, Crist WM, Link M, Borowitz M. Morphologic, immunologic and cytogenetic studies in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis and relapse: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. Leukemia 1992; 6:357362. Medline
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    Van Wering ER, Beishuizen A, Roeffen ET, van der Linden-Schrever BE, Verhoeven MA, Hahlen K, Hooijkaas H, van Dongen JJ. Immunophenotypic changes between diagnosis and relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 1995; 9:15231533. Medline
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    Macedo A, San Miguel JF, Vidriales MB, Lopez-Berges MC, Garcia-Marcos MA, Gonzalez M, Landolfi C, Orfao A. Phenotypic changes in acute myeloid leukaemia: implications in the detection of minimal residual disease. J Clin Pathol 1996; 49:1518. Medline
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    Campana D, Coustan-Smith E, Janossy G. The immunological detection of minimal residual disease in acute leukemia. Blood 1990; 76:163171. Medline
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    Drach J, Drach D, Glassl H, Gattringer C, Huber H. Flow cytometric determination of atypical antigen expression in acute leukemia for the study of minimal residual disease. Cytometry 1992; 13:893901. Medline
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    Farahat N, Morilla A, Owusu-Ankomah K, Morilla R, Pinkerton CR, Treleaven JG, Matutes E, Powles RL, Catovsky D. Detection of minimal residual disease in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by quantitative flow cytometry. Br J Haematol 1998; 101:158164. Medline
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    Sievers EL, Lange BJ, Buckley JD, Smith FO, Wells DA, Daigneault-Creech CA, Shults KE, Bernstein ID, Loken MR. Prediction of relapse of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia by use of multidimensional flow cytometry. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88:14831488. Medline
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    San Miguel JF, Martinez A, Macedo A, Vidriales MB, Lopez-Berges C, Gonzalez M, Caballero D, Garcia-Marcos MA, Ramos F, Fernandez-Calvo J, Calmuntia MJ, Diaz-Mediavilla J, Orfao A. Immunophenotyping investigation of minimal residual disease is a useful approach for predicting relapse in acute myeloid leukemia patients. Blood 1997; 90:24652470. Medline
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    Brisco MJ, Sykes PJ, Hughes E, Dolman G, Neoh SH, Peng LM, Toogood I, Morley AA. Monitoring minimal residual disease in peripheral blood in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 1997; 99:314319. Medline
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    Lo Coco F, Diverio D, Pandolfi PP, Biondi A, Rossi V, Avvisati G, Rambaldi A, Arcese W, Petti MC, Meloni G. Molecular evaluation of residual disease as a predictor of relapse in acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Lancet 1992; 340:14371438. Medline
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    Nucifora G, Larson RA, Rowley JD. Persistence of the 8;21 translocation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia type M2 in long-term remission. Blood 1993; 82:712715. Medline
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    Radich J, Gehly G, Lee A, Avery R, Bryant E, Edmands S, Gooley T, Kessler P, Kirk J, Ladne P, Thomas ED, Appelbaum FR. Detection of bcr-abl transcripts in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia after marrow transplantation. Blood 1997; 89:26022609. Medline
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    Hunger SP, Fall MZ, Camitta BM, Carroll AJ, Link MP, Lauer SJ, Mahoney DH, Pullen DJ, Shuster JJ, Steuber CP, Cleary ML. E2A-PBX1 chimeric transcript status at end of consolidation is not predictive of treatment outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias with a t(1;19)(q23;p13): a Pediatric Oncology Group study. Blood 1998; 91:10211028. Medline
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    Brisco J, Hughes E, Neoh SH, Sykes PJ, Bradstock K, Enno A, Szer J, McCaul K, Morley AA. Relationship between minimal residual disease and outcome in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 1996; 87:52515256. Medline
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    Jacquy C, Delepaut B, Van Daele S, Vaerman JL, Zenebergh A, Brichard B, Vermylen C, Cornu G, Martiat P. A prospective study of minimal residual disease in childhood B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: MRD level at the end of induction is a strong predictive factor of relapse. Br J Haematol 1997; 98:140146. Medline
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    Cave H, van der Werff ten Bosch, Suciu S, Guidal C, Waterkeyn C, Otten J, Bakkus M, Thielemans K, Grandchamp B, Vilmer E. Clinical significance of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer--Childhood Leukemia Cooperative Group. N Engl J Med 1998; 339:591598. Medline
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    van Dongen JJ, Seriu T, Panzer-Grumayer ER, Biondi A, Pongers-Willemse MJ, Corral L, Stolz F, Schrappe M, Masera G, Kamps WA, Gadner H, Van Wering ER, Ludwig W-D, Basso G, de Bruijn MAC, Cazzaniga G, Hettinger K, van der Does-van den Berg A, Hop WCJ, Riehm H, Bartram CR. Prognostic value of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood. Lancet 1998; 352:17311738. Medline
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    Neale GA, Coustan-Smith E, Pan Q, Chen X, Gruhn B, Stow P, Behm FG, Pui CH, Campana D. Tandem application of flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction for comprehensive detection of minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 1999; in press.
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    Gajjar A, Ribeiro R, Hancock ML, Rivera GK, Mahmoud H, Sandlund JT, Crist WM, Pui CH. Persistence of circulating blasts after 1 week of multiagent chemotherapy confers a poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 1995; 86:12921295. Medline
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    Sandlund JT, Harrison P, Rivera GK, Behm FG, Head D, Boyett JM, Rubnitz JE, Gajjar A, Ribeiro R, Relling MV, Evans WE, Pui CH. Persistence of lymphoblasts in bone marrow on day 15 and day 22–25 of remission induction predicted a poorer treatment outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 1997; 90 :(Suppl. 1): 560a.
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    Pui CH, Ribeiro RC, Campana D, Raimondi SC, Hancock ML, Behm FG, Sandlund JT, Rivera GK, Evans WE, Crist WM, Krance R. Prognostic factors in the acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemias of infants. Leukemia 1996; 10:952956. Medline