Advanced secondary (renal) hyperparathyroidism induced by chronic renal disturbance is one of the most serious complications for long-term hemodialysis patients. Parathyroidectomy is indicated in patients with severely advanced renal hyperparathyroidism refractory to medical treatment (including calcitriol pulse therapy) and the clinical effect of parathyroidectomy is striking. However, skeletal deformity, vessel calcification, and remarkable reduction of bone content is irreversible, and it is important to perform parathyroidectomy at right time. Based on histopathological and pathophysiological investigations, nodular hyperplasia is monoclonal neoplasia with abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH) response to extracellular calcium and vitamin D. When parathyroid hyperplasia progresses to nodular hyperplasia, parathyroidectomy should be required. Total parathyroidectomy with forearm autograft is the preferable procedure for renal hyperparathyroidism, especially for patients who need to continue hemodialysis treatment after parathyroidectomy. Removal of all parathyroid glands, including supernumerary glands, at the initial operation, and proper choice of adequate parathyroid tissue for autograft, are important to prevent persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Preoperative image diagnosis is useful for localization, and routine resection of thymic tissue is necessary to remove supernumerary glands. In our series of 548 patients, graft-dependent recurrent hyperparathyroidism was not negligible and the incidence was about 20% at the 5th year postoperatively. Enlarged autografts of parathyroid tissue could be removed from forearm under local anesthesia with fewer invasions. The function of autografted parathyroid tissue is nearly satisfactory and no re-transplantation of cryopreserved parathyroid tissue was necessary. To avoid adynamic bone disease, relatively high PTH level is required—over-suppression of PTH by excess of vitamin D and calcium salts should be avoided. In our experience, total parathyroidectomy with forearm autograft is very effective and adequate treatment for advanced renal hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroid function can be controlled after parathyroidectomy. Semin. Surg. Oncol. 13:87–96. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.