This study tests a model that uses organizational justice variables and the personality trait of negative affectivity to explain two forms of deviant employee behavior. Prior research suggests that deviance can be directed interpersonally or against organizations. We propose a model that links unfavorable perceptions of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice, as well as the dispositional trait of negative affectivity, to both types of deviant acts. To test the model, a survey was distributed to employees from a government agency and an international manufacturer of paper products. Responses to the survey were analysed using structural equation modeling to evaluate the fit of the theoretical model to the data. Results showed that the model fits the data well and that nearly all of the hypothesized relations among constructs were supported. Implications of the results for the prediction and control of deviant behavior are discussed and future research directions are offered. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.