Recent excavations at Nahal Neqarot Rockshelter in the Central Negev, Israel, revealed 60 cm of in situ sediments. The associated lithic industry is mostly attributable to the Middle Epipalaeolithic Ramonian industry, though there is also evidence for sporadic earlier and later Epipalaeolithic use of the site. This is confirmed by three accelerator 14C dates, which contribute to a better understanding of the chronological framework for the Epipalaeolithic in the region. Microscopic examination of charred wood remains uncovered with the lithics, revealed the dominance of juniper, which is presently extinct in the nearby contemporaneous vegetation, otherwise composed of still extant taxa. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.