• NKT cell;
  • BCG;
  • IFN-γ;
  • IL-4;
  • Liver


The CD4+ natural killer (NK)T cells in the liver are potent IL-4 producers and hence may promote Th2 cell development. Following Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) infection, IL-4-producing CD4+ NKT cells become undetectable in liver mononuclear cells of normal density (interface between 40 and 70 % Percoll) by flow cytometry. The present study shows that M. bovis BCG infection changes the density of liver CD4+ NKT cells and shifts cytokine production from IL-4 to IFN-γ. The number of CD4+ NK1+ TCRα / βintermediate cells increased in the low-density fraction (< 40 % Percoll density gradient) in parallel to the reduction of this cell population in the fraction of normal density. The number of IL-4-producing cells, however, was small and high frequencies of IFN-γ-secreting cells were identified in the low-density fraction after TCR/CD3 ligation. Accordingly, selected low-density CD4+ NKT cells encompassed high numbers of IFN-γ producers and minute numbers of IL-4-secreting cells. Induction of low-density CD4+ NKT cells by M. bovis BCG was abrogated by endogenous IL-12 neutralization which also caused increased bacterial growth in the liver. We assume that M. bovis BCG infection changes cytokine secretion by the CD4+ NKT cell population from IL-4 to IFN-γ through IL-12 induction. Thus, CD4+ NKT cells may contribute to host resistance against intracellular bacteria prior to conventional IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells.