• 1
    Henle, W. and Henle, G., Epstein-Barr virus and human malignancies. Adv. Viral Oncol. 1985. 5: 201238.
  • 2
    Herbst, H., Niedobitek, G., Kneba, M., Hummel, M., Finn, T., Anagnostopuolos, I., Bergholz, M., Krieger, G. and Stein, H., High incidence of Epstein-Barr virus genomes in Hodgkin's disease. Am. J. Pathol. 1990. 137: 1318.
  • 3
    Hanto, D. W., Frizzera, G., Gajl-Peczalska, K. J. and Simmons, R. L., Epstein-Barr virus, immunodeficiency, and B cell lymphoproliferation. Transplantation 1985. 39: 461472.
  • 4
    Kieff, E. and Leibowitz, D., Epstein-Barr virus and its replication. In Fields, F. M. and Knipe, D. N. (Eds.) Immunology, 2nd Edn. Raven Press, New York 1990, pp 18891920.
  • 5
    Rickinson, A. B., Moss, D. J., Allen, D. J., Wallace, L. E., Rowe, M. and Epstein, M. A., Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T cells by in vitro stimulation with the autologous lymphoblastoid cell line. Int. J. Cancer 1981. 27: 593601.
  • 6
    Reali, E., Guerrini, R., Giori, B., Borghi, M., Marastoni, M., Tomatis, R., Traniello, S., Masucci, M. G. and Gavioli, R., Activation of epitope-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses by synthetic peptides. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1996. 105: 369375.
  • 7
    Morgan, S. M., Wilkinson, G. W., Floettmann, E., Blake, N. and Rickinson, A. B., A recombinant adenovirus expressing an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) target antigen can selectively reactivate rare components of EBV cytotoxic T-lymphocyte memory in vitro. J. Virol. 1996. 70: 23942402.
  • 8
    Reali, E., Guerrini, R., Moretti, S., Spisani, S., Lanza, F., Tomatis, R., Traniello, S. and Gavioli, R., Polymor-phonuclear neutrophils pulsed with synthetic peptides efficiently activate memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Leukoc. Biol. 1996. 60: 207213.
  • 9
    Murray, R. J., Kurilla, M. G., Brooks, J. M., Thomas, W. A., Rowe, M., Kieff, E. and Rickinson, A. B., Identification of target antigens for the human cytotoxic T cell response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV): implications for the immune control of EBV-positive malignancies. J. Exp. Med. 1992. 176: 157168.
  • 10
    Khanna, R., Burrows, S. R., Kurilla, M. G., Jacob, C. A., Misko, I. S., Sculley, T. B., Kieff, E. and Moss, D. J., Localization of Epstein-Barr virus cytotoxic T cell epitopes using recombinant vaccinia: Implications for vaccine development. J. Exp. Med. 1992. 176: 169176.
  • 11
    Gavioli, R., Kurilla, M. G., De Campos-Lima, P. O., Wallace, L. E., Dolcetti, R., Murray, R. J., Rickinson, A. B. and Masucci, M. G., Multiple H LA A11-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes of different immunoge-nicities in the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 4. J. Virol. 1993. 67: 15721578.
  • 12
    Lee, S. P., Tierney, R. J., Thomas, W. A., Brooks, J. M. and Rickinson, A. B., Conserved CTL epitopes within EBV latent membrane protein 2: a potential target for CTL-based tumor therapy. J. Immunol. 1997. 158: 33253334.
  • 13
    Rickinson, A. B. and Moss, D. J., Human cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1997. 15: 405431.
  • 14
    Levitskaya, J., Coram, M., Levitsky, V., Imreh, S., Steigerwald-Mullen, P. M., Klein, G., Kurilla, M. G. and Masucci, M. G., Inhibition of antigen processing by the internal repeat region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1. Nature 1995. 375: 685688.
  • 15
    Blake, N., Lee, S., Redchenko, I., Thomas, W., Steven, N., Leese, A., Steigerwald-Mullen, P., Kurilla, M. G., Frappier, L. and Rickinson, A., Human CD8+ T cell responses to EBV EBNA1: HLA class I presentation of the (Gly-Ala)-containing protein requires exogenous processing. Immunity 1997. 7: 791802.
  • 16
    Gratama, J. W., Zutter, M. M., Minarovits, J., Oosterveer, M. A., Thomas, E. D., Klein, G. and Ernberg, I., Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded growth-transformation-associated proteins in lymphoproliferations of bone-marrow transplant recipients. Int. J. Cancer 1991. 47: 188192.
  • 17
    Papadopulos, E. B., Ladanyi, M., Emanuel, D., Mackinnon, S., Boulad, F., Carabasi, M. H., Castro-Malaspina, H., Childs, B. H., Gillio, A. P., Small, T. N., Young, J. W., Kernan, N. A. and O'Reilly, R. J., Infusions of donor leukocytes to treat Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 1994. 330: 11851191.
  • 18
    Rooney, C. M., Smith, C. A., Ng, C. Y., Loftin, S., Li, C., Krance, R. A., Brenner, M. K. and Heslop, H. E., Use of gene-modified virus-specific T lymphocytes to control Epstein-Barr-virus-related lymphoproliferation. Lancet 1995. 345: 913.
  • 19
    Heslop, H. E., Ng, C. Y., Li, C., Smith, C. A., Loftin, S. K., Krance, R. A., Brenner, M. K. and Rooney, C. M., Long-term restoration of immunity against Epstein-Barr virus infection by adoptive transfer of gene-modified virus-specific T lymphocytes. Nature Med. 1996. 2: 551555.
  • 20
    Haque, T., Amlot, P. L., Helling, N., Thomas, J. A., Sweny, P., Rolles, K., Burroughs, A. K., Prentice, H. G. and Crawford, D. H., Reconstitution of EBV-specific Tcell immunity in solid organ transplantation recipients. J. Immunol. 1998. 160: 62046209.
  • 21
    Rooney, C. M., Smith, C. A., Ng, C. Y., Loftin, S. K., Sixbey, J. W., Gan, Y., Srivastava, D. K., Bowman, L. C., Krance, R. A., Brenner, M. K. and Heslop, H. E., Infusion of cytotoxic T cells for the prevention and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in allogeneic transplant recipients. Blood 1998. 92: 15491555.
  • 22
    Kuzushima, K., Yamamoto, M., Kimura, H., Ando, Y., Kudo, T., Tsuge, I. and Morishima, T., Establishment of anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) cellular immunity by adoptive transfer of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from an HLA-matched sibling to a patient with severe chronic active EBV infection. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1996. 103: 192198.
  • 23
    Roskrow, M. A., Suzuki, N., Gan, Y., Sixbey, J. W., Ng, C. Y., Kimbrough, S., Hudson, M., Brenner, M. K., Heslop, H. E. and Rooney, C. M., Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for the treatment of patients with EBV-positive relapsed Hodgkin's disease. Blood 1998. 91: 29252934.
  • 24
    Brooks, L., Yao, Q. Y., Rickinson, A. B. and Young, L. S., Epstein-Barr virus latent gene transcription in nasopharingeal carcinoma cells: coexpression of EBNA1, LMP1, and LMP2 transcripts. J. Virol. 1992. 66: 26892697.
  • 25
    Busson, P., McCoy, R., Sadler, R., Gilligan, K., Tursz, T. and Raab-Traub, N., Consistent transcription of the Epstein-Barr virus LMP2 gene in nasopharingeal carcinoma. J. Virol. 1992. 66: 32573262.
  • 26
    Herbst, H., Dallenbach, F., Hummel, M., Niedobitek, G., Pileri, S., Miiller-Lantzsch, N. and Stein, H., Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein expression in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1991. 88: 47664770.
  • 27
    Frisan, T., Sjoberg, J., Dolcetti, R., Boiocchi, M., De Re, V., Carbone, A., Brautbar, C., Battat, S., Biberfeld, P., Eckman, M., Ost, A., Christensson, B., Sundstrom, C., Bjorkholm, M., Pisa, P. and Masucci, M. G., Local suppression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxicity in biopsies of EBV-positive Hodgkin's disease. Blood 1995. 86: 14931501.
  • 28
    Herbst, H., Foss, H. D., Samol, J., Araujo, I., Klotzbach, H., Krause, H., Agathanggelou, A., Niedobitek, G. and Stein, H., Frequent expression of interleukin-10 by Epstein-Barr virus harboring tumor cells of Hodgkin's disease. Blood 1996. 87: 29182929.
  • 29
    Lee, S. P., Thomas, W. A., Murray, R. J., Khanim, F., Kaur, S., Young, L. S., Rowe, M., Kurilla, M. and Rickinson, A. B., HLA A2.1-restricted cytotoxic T cells recognizing a range of Epstein-Barr virus isolates through a defined epitope in latent membrane protein LMP2. J. Virol. 1993. 67: 74287435.
  • 30
    Bednarek, M. A., Sauma, S. Y., Gammon, M. C., Porter, G., Tamhankar, S., Williamson, A. R. and Zweerink, H., The minimum peptide epitope from the influenza virus matrix protein. Extra and intracellular loading of HLA-A2. J. Immunol. 1991. 147: 40474053.
  • 31
    Ruppert, J., Sidney, J., Celis, E., Kubo, R. T., Grey, H. M. and Sette, A., Prominent role of secondary anchor residues in peptide binding to HLA-A2.1 molecules. Cell 1993. 74: 929937.
  • 32
    Parker, K. C., Bednarek, M. A. and Coligan, J. E., Scheme for ranking potential HLA-A2 binding peptides based on independent binding of individual peptide side-chains. J. Immunol. 1994. 152: 163175.
  • 33
    Drijfhout, J. W., Brandt, R. M. P., D'Amaro, J., Kast, W. M. and Melief, C. J., Detailed motifs for peptide binding to HLA-A0201 derived from large random sets of peptides using a cellular binding assay. Hum. Immunol. 1995. 43: 112.
  • 34
    Lee, S. P., Thomas, W. A., Blake, N. W. and Rickinson, A. B., Transporter (TAP)-independent processing of a multiple membrane-spanning protein, the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2. Eur. J. Immunol. 1996. 26: 18751883.
  • 35
    Khanna, R., Burrows, S. R., Moss, D. J. and Silins, S. L., Peptide transporter (TAP-1 and TAP-2)-independent endogenous processing of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2A: implications for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte control of EBV-associated malignancies. J. Virol. 1996. 70: 53575362.
  • 36
    Neefjes, J. J., Dierx, J. and Ploegh, H. L., The effect of anchor residue modifications on the stability of major histocompatibiliy complex class I-peptide interactions. Eur. J. Immunol. 1993. 23: 840845.
  • 37
    Van der Burg, S. H., Visseren, M. J., Brandt, R. M., Kast, W. M. and Melief, C. J., Immunogenicity of peptides bound to MHC class I molecules depends on the MHC-peptide complex stability. J. Immunol. 1996. 156: 33083314.
  • 38
    Chen, W., Khilko, S., Fecondo, J., Margulies, D. H. and McCluskey, J., Determinant selection of major histocompatibility complex class 1-restricted antigenic peptides is explained by class l-peptide affinity an is strongly influenced by nondominant anchor residues. J. Exp. Med. 1994. 180: 14711483.
  • 39
    Levitsky, V., Zhang, Q. J., Levitskaya, J. and Masucci, M. G., The life span of major histocompatibility complex-peptide complexes influences the efficiency of presentation and immunogenicity of two class l-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes in the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 4. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 183: 915926.
  • 40
    Tourdot, S., Oukka, M., Manuguerra, J. C., Magafa, V., Vergnon, I., Riche, N., Bruley-Rosset, M., Cordopatis, P. and Kosmatopoulos, K., Chimeric peptides: a new approach to enhancing the immunogenicity of peptides with low MHC class I affinity: application in antiviral vaccination. J. Immunol. 1997. 159: 23912398.
  • 41
    Lipford, G. B., Bauer, S., Wagner, H. and Heeg, K., Peptide engineering allows cytotoxic T-cell vaccination against human papilloma virus tumour antigen, E6. Immunology 1995. 84: 298303.
  • 42
    Pogue, R. R., Eron, J., Frelinger, J. A. and Matsui, M., Amino-terminal alteration of the HLA-A0201-restricted human immunodeficiency virus pol peptide increases complex stability and in vitro immunogenicity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1995. 92b: 81668170.
  • 43
    Overwijk, W. W., Tsung, A., Irvine, K. R., Parkhurst, M. R., Goletz, T. J., Tsung, K., Carrol, M. W., Liu, C., Moss, B., Rosemberg, S. A. and Restifo, N. P., gplOO/ pmel 17 is a murine rejection antigen: induction of “self”-reactive, tumoricidal T cells using high-affinity, altered peptide ligand. J. Exp. Med. 1998. 188: 277286.
  • 44
    Zhang, Q. J., Gavioli, R., Klein, G. and Masucci, M. G., An HLA-A11 -specific motif in nonamer peptides derived from viral and cellular proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1993. 90: 22172221.
  • 45
    Reali, E., Guerrini, R., Marastoni, M., Tomatis, R., Masucci, M. G., Traniello, S. and Gavioli, R., A single specific amino acid residue in peptide antigens is sufficient to activate memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes; potential role of cross-reactive peptides in memory T cell maintenance. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 106113.
  • 46
    Gavioli, R., Zhang, Q. J., Marastoni, M., Guerrini, R., Reali, E., Tomatis, R., Masucci, M. G. and Traniello, S., Effect of anchor residue modifications on the stability of H LA-A11/peptide complexes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1995. 206: 814.
  • 47
    Gavioli, R., Guerrini, R., Masucci, M. G., Tomatis, R., Traniello, S. and Marastoni, M., High structural side chain specificity required at the second position of immunogenic peptides to obtain stable MHC/peptide complexes. FEBS Lett. 1998. 421: 9599.
  • 48
    Gavioli, R., De Campos-Lima, P. O., Kurilla, M. G., Kieff, E., Klein, G. and Masucci, M. G., Recognition of the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigens EBNA-4 and EBNA-6 by HLA A11 restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes: Implications for the down-regulation of HLA A11 in Burkitt's lymphoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1992. 89: 58625866.