Chapter 2. The Lanthanides - Principles and Energetics

  1. Simon Cotton

Published Online: 20 JUN 2006

DOI: 10.1002/0470010088.ch2

Lanthanide and Actinide Chemistry

Lanthanide and Actinide Chemistry

How to Cite

Cotton, S. (2006) The Lanthanides - Principles and Energetics, in Lanthanide and Actinide Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/0470010088.ch2

Author Information

  1. Uppingham School, Uppingham, Rutland, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 20 JUN 2006
  2. Published Print: 13 JAN 2006

Book Series:

  1. Inorganic Chemistry

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470010051

Online ISBN: 9780470010082



  • lanthanides and f orbitals;
  • lanthanides - principles and energetics;
  • 4f orbitals and xenon core;
  • lanthanide contraction;
  • lanthanide element electron configuration;
  • ionization energies;
  • atomic and ionic radii;
  • ionization energy patterns


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Electron Configurations of the Lanthanides and f Orbitals

  • What do f Orbitals Look Like?

  • How f Orbitals affect Properties of the Lanthanides

  • The Lanthanide Contraction

  • Electron Configurations of the Lanthanide Elements and of Common Ions

  • Patterns in Ionization Energies

  • Atomic and Ionic Radii

  • Patterns in Hydration Energies (Enthalpies) for the Lanthanide Ions

  • Enthalpy Changes for the Formation of Simple Lanthanide Compounds

  • Patterns in Redox Potentials