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Population genomics: patterns of genetic variation within populations

Part 1. Genetics

1.1. Genetic Variation and Evolution

Introductory Review

  1. Greg Gibson

Published Online: 15 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047001153X.g101105

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Gibson, G. 2005. Population genomics: patterns of genetic variation within populations. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 1:1.1:1.

Author Information

  1. North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2005

Abstract

Population genomics is the study of the forces that shape the distribution of molecular variation within and among populations, on a genome-wide scale (Luikart et al., 2003). Throughout the twentieth century, the mathematical theory of the history and fate of alleles became increasingly sophisticated, to the point where it was recognized that multiple gene sequences are required to describe the history or demography of a species (Hey and Machado, 2003) and that properties of single genes must be interpreted in light of other sequences (Chakravati, 1999; Bamshad and Wooding, 2003). While robust evolutionary theory from first principles is essential for the interpretation of the distribution of genetic variation (Kimura, 1983; Hartl and Clark, 1997), it must be supplemented by empirical data that places confidence limits on key parameters. That these vary widely among species is one of the important insights from genomic analysis, which is thus ushering in a dramatic new phase in the discipline of population genetics.

Keywords:

  • population genetics;
  • linkage disequilibrium;
  • recombination;
  • mutation;
  • population structure;
  • haplotype block;
  • polymorphism