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Imprinting and epigenetics in mouse models and embryogenesis: understanding the requirement for both parental genomes

Part 1. Genetics

1.3. Epigenetics

Specialist Review

  1. Mellissa R. W. Mann

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047001153X.g103207

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Mann, M. R. W. 2005. Imprinting and epigenetics in mouse models and embryogenesis: understanding the requirement for both parental genomes. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 1:1.3:28.

Author Information

  1. The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

Abstract

Twenty years ago, elegant nuclear transplantation studies in the mouse demonstrated that both a maternal and a paternal genome are required to complete normal mammalian development. Since that time, further investigation of parthenogenetic and androgenetic embryos indicates that maternally and paternally expressed genes are required for proper development of both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. Poor development of uniparental embryos is attributed to misregulation of multiple genes governed by genomic imprinting and imprinted X chromosome inactivation that act synergistically on growth, development, and viability. The most important of these genes likely have roles in cell proliferation and differentiation.

Keywords:

  • imprinting;
  • X-inactivation;
  • parthenotes;
  • androgenotes;
  • uniparental;
  • placenta;
  • embryo