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Developmental regulation of DNA methyltransferases

Part 1. Genetics

1.3. Epigenetics

Specialist Review

  1. Diane J. Lees-Murdock,
  2. Colum P. Walsh

Published Online: 15 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/047001153X.g103228

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Lees-Murdock, D. J. and Walsh, C. P. 2006. Developmental regulation of DNA methyltransferases. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 1:1.3.

Author Information

  1. School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Centre for Molecular Biosciences, Coleraine, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2006

Abstract

The mammalian genome appears to undergo two waves of demethylation, one in the preimplantation embryo and the other in the germ cells of the primitive gonad. Methylation is reestablished at the egg cylinder stage and either in the prospermatogonia for the male or the growing oocyte for the female. Precise control of methyltransferase activity is required to ensure that these events occur reliably. Here we discuss the various mechanisms, from promoter switching to protein stabilization, used to regulate the maintenance and de novo enzymes catalyzing CpG methylation during development, and how these converge to limit the periods during which all the required factors are present in the nucleus.

Keywords:

  • Dnmt1;
  • Dmt3a;
  • Dnmt3b;
  • Dnmt3L;
  • mouse;
  • promoter;
  • splicing;
  • subcellular localization