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Epigenetics and imprint resetting in cloned animals

Part 1. Genetics

1.3. Epigenetics

Short Specialist Review

  1. Sigrid Eckardt,
  2. Satoshi Kurosaka,
  3. K. John McLaughlin

Published Online: 15 NOV 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047001153X.g103317

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Eckardt, S., Kurosaka, S. and McLaughlin, K. J. 2005. Epigenetics and imprint resetting in cloned animals. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 1:1.3:34.

Author Information

  1. University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 NOV 2005

Abstract

Mammalian somatic cell cloning is extremely inefficient, with most clones failing to develop past implantation. This is presumably caused by epigenetic errors as a result of inadequate reprogramming of a somatic cell nucleus to a zygotic role. Imprinted genes have been implicated in the demise of somatic cell clones. This review discusses the pros and cons of this assumption and considers aspects of imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation in somatic cell clones. In summary, imprinted genes may be most relevant as an indicator for reprogramming but are probably not more vulnerable to reprogramming errors than nonimprinted genes. In contrast, changes in the methylation state indicate that failure of clones is often associated with abnormal methylation of individual sequences as well as the genome as a whole.

Keywords:

  • somatic cell nuclear transfer;
  • cloning;
  • reprogramming;
  • epigenetic reprogramming;
  • imprinting;
  • allele-specific expression