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Sex-specific maps and consequences for linkage mapping

Part 1. Genetics

1.4. Gene Mapping

Short Specialist Review

  1. Solveig K. Sieberts1,†,
  2. Daniel F. Gudbjartsson2

Published Online: 15 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047001153X.g104305

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Sieberts, S. K. and Gudbjartsson, D. F. 2005. Sex-specific maps and consequences for linkage mapping. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 1:1.4:54.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Rosetta Inpharmatics LLC, Seattle, WA, USA

  2. 2

    deCODE Genetics, Reykjavík, Iceland

  1. Rosetta Inpharmatics, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2005

Abstract

In humans, as in most species, map distances vary between the sexes. Overall, the female-to-male ratio is estimated to be 1.65 : 1, but this ratio varies by chromosome. Additionally, ratios are not constant along the chromosome, and patterns of sex-distance ratio vary by chromosome. Generally, females tend to demonstrate more recombination near the centromere, while males demonstrate more recombination near the telomeres. Despite the sometimes extreme differences between the sex-specific maps, multipoint linkage analyses are often performed assuming a sex-averaged linkage map. Assuming a sex-averaged map can alter the distributions of the LOD, and NPL scores, and can affect the power and false-positive rate, especially when pedigrees contain unequal numbers of male and female meioses or when specifically modeling parent-of-origin effects, such as imprinting models.

Keywords:

  • sex-specific maps;
  • sex-averaged maps;
  • linkage analysis;
  • LOD;
  • NPL