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Hierarchical, ordered mapped large insert clone shotgun sequencing

Part 2. Genomics

2.1. Genome Sequencing

Introductory Review

  1. Bruce A. Roe

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047001153X.g201112

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Roe, B. A. 2005. Hierarchical, ordered mapped large insert clone shotgun sequencing. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 2:2.1:3.

Author Information

  1. University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

Abstract

DNA sequencing has become a powerful tool to deepen our understanding of the genetic basis for living systems. Although the basic principles of the Sanger dideoxynucleotide chain extension approach have changed little since it was developed over 30 years ago, the detailed methodology and technology to implement it have resulted in an approximate doubling of the amount of DNA sequence data annually since then. From its initial labor-intensive implementation by which only fairly short DNA segments could be sequenced, present day DNA sequencing now entails a shotgun-based approach that can yield the complete sequence of target regions that are in the megabase pair range. However, when the shotgun approach is coupled with a hierarchical approach in which megabase to gigabase genomes are dissected into ordered maps of large insert clones that are tractable to highly automated shotgun sequencing, that the complete, highly accurate reference genomes for several organisms, including humans, have been determined. But science and technology do not stand still, as new and exciting approaches to obtain DNA sequence data hundreds to thousands of times faster and less expensive than presently available loom on the horizon, giving us the ability to gain an even deeper understanding of the genomes of hundreds of diverse organisms, from animals to plants, as well as the readily available sequence of our individual hereditary material and the prediction of our individual predisposition to genetic-based diseases and physical traits.

Keywords:

  • DNA;
  • sequencing;
  • dideoxynucleotide;
  • shotgun;
  • hierarchical;
  • mapping;
  • automation;
  • cloning;
  • amplification;
  • real time;
  • microelectrophoresis;
  • array-based