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Noncoding RNAs in mammals

Part 2. Genomics

2.3. The Human Genome

Specialist Review

  1. Timothy Ravasi,
  2. David A. Hume

Published Online: 15 APR 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047001153X.g203204

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Ravasi, T. and Hume, D. A. 2005. Noncoding RNAs in mammals. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 2:2.3:27.

Author Information

  1. University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 APR 2005

Abstract

Transcripts that lack any protein-coding potential represent at least half of the identified elements transcriptome. We review the evidence for the existence of such transcripts in the mammalian transcriptome, and argue that there may be many more noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) still to be discovered. Relatively few ncRNA “genes” have been ascribed a function based upon mutation analysis. The review discusses possible roles of ncRNAs as cis-acting and trans-acting elements in epigenetic transcriptional control, including monoallelic gene silencing and imprinting. We also consider the evidence that the production of ncRNAs is a common feature of transcriptional enhancers.

Keywords:

  • genome;
  • transcriptome;
  • epigenetic;
  • ncRNA;
  • regulatory networks;
  • junk DNA;
  • mRNA;
  • transcriptional noise;
  • microRNA;
  • antisense