Part 2. Genomics
2.4. Model Organisms: Functional and Comparative Genomics
Published Online: 15 APR 2005
Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics
How to Cite
Goldsworthy, M. E. and Cox, R. D. 2005. Mouse models. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics.
- Published Online: 15 APR 2005
The mouse has a proven track record as a model organism that has made a significant contribution to the understanding of disease and biology relevant to the human. It is not the only model organism by any means but for the study of human disease it is perhaps one of the most widely used. We have tried to illustrate in this review the multiple approaches that have been utilized using as examples the study of type 2 diabetes and obesity in the mouse. Spontaneous mutations and knockouts have given insight into the relative contributions of differing genes in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, β-cell function, and adiposity. Tissue-specific knockouts have gone some way in dissecting the relative contributions of multiple tissues and organs to disease progression. Combinations of different mutants, which individually would not produce disease, have provided polygenic models of type 2 diabetes. Sensitized ENU mutagenesis screens may yield additional novel diabetes genes. The mouse has only been one of the approaches available to us to investigate human disease but together with studies in human populations, other model organisms, and in vitro systems, it has opened unprecedented opportunities in this new century to tackle the problem of common human disease.
- mouse models;
- polygenic models of human disease;
- type 2 diabetes;
- glucose homeostasis;
- gene-driven screen