Standard Article

Hybrid MS

Part 3. Proteomics

3.1. Core Methodologies

Short Specialist Review

  1. R. H. Bateman,
  2. J. I. Langridge

Published Online: 15 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/047001153X.g301301

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

How to Cite

Bateman, R. H. and Langridge, J. I. 2005. Hybrid MS. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 3:3.1:10.

Author Information

  1. Micromass UK Ltd, Manchester, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2005


Tandem mass spectrometry, or MS/MS, is the preferred technology for many applications in which mass spectrometry plays a part. Tandem mass spectrometry allows selection and isolation of specific components in the presence of complex matrices and their subsequent identification and/or quantification. Hybrid MS instruments consist of two mass analyzers in series and a means for fragmenting ions. That means is most commonly that of promoting collision-induced decomposition (CID) by subjecting ions to energetic collisions with gas molecules. In most hybrid MS instrumentation, the processes of mass selection, fragmentation, and product ion mass analysis take place sequentially in space. In some instances, fragmentation can take place in one of the mass analyzers wherein one or other of the processes take place sequentially in time. Different combinations of mass analyzers have different characteristics that make them more or less suited for certain applications. It is possible to combine most types of mass analyzer in almost any sequence, and numerous combinations have been constructed. A brief description is provided of those hybrid instruments that are most commonly used for studies in the life sciences; namely, the triple quadrupole, the quadrupole–ion trap (Q-Trap), the ion trap–time-of-flight (Trap-TOF), the time-of-flight–time-of-flight (TOF-TOF), the quadrupole–orthogonal time-of-flight (Q-TOF), the ion trap–orthogonal time-of-flight (Trap-TOF), the quadrupole-FTMS and, the ion trap–FTMS. For each instrument type, the principle applications are discussed.


  • hybrid;
  • tandem;
  • MS;
  • MS/MS;
  • fragmentation;
  • CID;
  • quadrupole;
  • time-of-flight;
  • ion-trap;
  • FTMS