Functional networks in mammalian cells
Part 3. Proteomics
3.8. Systems Biology
Published Online: 15 JAN 2005
Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics
How to Cite
Xiong, Y. and Iyengar, R. 2005. Functional networks in mammalian cells. Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics. 3:3.8:108.
- Published Online: 15 JAN 2005
The basic functional unit of multicellular organism is the cell. Cells are complex systems that perform many required fundamental functions such as environmental adaptation, energy utilization, proliferation, and differentiation in a regulated manner. Even cell death is often a controlled process. Cellular functions involve numerous components participating in a variety of processes. A critical aspect for normal cell functionality is the rigorous control of all cellular processes that may take place at different cellular locations at different rates and at different times. Such regulation is achieved by a central intracellular signaling network that receives and processes signals from both extracellular and intracellular sources. The processed signals are then used to regulate the different cellular machines such that they can function co-operatively to evoke complex physiological responses. In order to achieve reliable functionality, the cell has developed multiple redundant systems that can regulate the cellular machines. Additionally, the systems are arranged in a modular fashion such that disturbances do not substantially propagate between modules. This architecture leads to a complex system where both robustness and fragility are dynamically balanced.
- cell signaling networks;
- cellular machines;
- design principles;