Standard Article


  1. Jack Cuzick

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a03031

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Cuzick, J. 2005. Clustering. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 2.

Author Information

  1. Cancer Research UK, London, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Clustering problems arise in a number of epidemiological applications and the temporal and spatial pattern of disease incidence has been a major stimulus for the development of this subject. Evaluating apparent ‘clusters’ of disease in small communities has led to the development of a number of tests for spatial clustering. The study of unexpected outbreaks of disease has led to tests of temporal clustering and also of space–time clustering where closeness both temporally and geographically is required.


  • clustering;
  • spatial clustering;
  • temporal clustering;
  • dispersion tests;
  • maxima;
  • scan statistic;
  • runs test;
  • join-count statistic;
  • k-nearest neighbors