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Geographic Epidemiology

  1. John F. Bithell

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a03068

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Bithell, J. F. 2005. Geographic Epidemiology. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 3.

Author Information

  1. University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Geographical analysis of epidemiologic data may be useful in modeling risk as a function of geographic covariates, testing hypotheses, mapping disease patterns, identifying areas of high risk, or detecting clusters. Distinctions are drawn between case dependence and independence (the latter not requiring a spatially correlated error structure), and between areal and continuous data. Various models are described, and attention is given to disease mapping (involving data smoothing) and clustering.


  • relative risk;
  • clusters;
  • generalized linear model;
  • spatial correlation;
  • isotonic;
  • smoothing;
  • nearest neighbor;
  • leukaemia