Standard Article

Agreement, Measurement of

  1. M. M. Shoukri

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a04002

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Shoukri, M. M. 2005. Agreement, Measurement of. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 1.

Author Information

  1. University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


This entry reviews some well-known indices of agreement, the conceptual and statistical issues related to their estimation, and their interpretation for both categorical and interval scale measurements. Particular measures of agreement that are discussed include kappa, a measure of category distinguishability, measure for agreement with nominal responses, monotonic agreement, and agreement measures for 2 × 2 tables. Agreement of multiple raters for the same subject is also discussed, together with the use of unanimity and majority rules. Software to carry out these calculations is also mentioned.


  • kappa;
  • categorical data;
  • interval data;
  • multiple raters;
  • software