Standard Article


  1. Sarah C. Darby1,
  2. Ethel S. Gilbert2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a08044

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Darby, S. C. and Gilbert, E. S. 2005. Radiation. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 6.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Oxford, Clinical Trial Service Unit, Oxford, UK

  2. 2

    ICRF, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Biostatistical applications in the area of ionizing radiation are primarily directed towards obtaining quantitative risk estimates for various cancers following radiation exposure. The relevant data arise mostly from observational studies on humans. The major populations studied include the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, patients given radiotherapy for a variety of malignant and other conditions, workers in the nuclear industry, persons exposed in countries of the former Soviet Union, uranium miners, and populations living in areas where residential radon concentrations are high. Experimental animal data are also available. The large quantity of information and the availability of quantitative dose estimates in many studies have enabled the development of a variety of complex risk models. Recent work has included bringing together data from several different studies, usually with the objective of producing more precise estimates of risk, and the development and application of methods that account for uncertainties in the estimates of radiation dose.


  • radiation;
  • cancer;
  • risk quantification;
  • radon;
  • x-rays;
  • observational studies