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Structural and Sampling Zeros

  1. Thomas R. Ten Have

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a10059

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Ten Have, T. R. 2005. Structural and Sampling Zeros. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 7.

Author Information

  1. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Structural and sampling zeros are addressed in the context of fitting loglinear (and by definition logistic) models to cross-classified tables. The specific issues of parameter identifiability, degrees of freedom, exact inference, and software limitations are considered.


  • contingency tables;
  • loglinear models;
  • likelihood ratio statistics;
  • marginal tables;
  • degrees of freedom;
  • estimability