Standard Article


  1. W. N. Venables1,
  2. John H. Maindonald2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a14030

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Venables, W. N. and Maindonald, J. H. 2005. R. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 4.

Author Information

  1. 1

    CMIS, CSIRO Laboratories, Cleveland, Australia

  2. 2

    J.H. Maindonald, Australian National University, Canberra ACT, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


The R system is an independent, open source, freely available implementation of a computer language that is well adapted to the development of scientific calculations, data analysis, and graphics. It has gained particular importance for developing and promulgating new statistical, data analytical, or graphical techniques. Versions of R are available for Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, and MacOS 8 or later.


  • language;
  • computation;
  • data analysis;
  • graphics