Standard Article

Hypothesis Testing

  1. David Salsburg

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a15054

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Salsburg, D. 2005. Hypothesis Testing. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 4.

Author Information

  1. New London, CT, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


A significance test of a null hypothesis involves the choice of a test statistic whose null distribution is known, and a judgment as to whether, or how well, the observed value of the statistic accords with the known distribution. The article reviews the history of this approach, with emphasis on the Neyman–Pearson formulation, taking account of the behavior of the test statistic under alternative hypotheses.


  • significance;
  • power;
  • Neyman–Pearson;
  • null hypothesis;
  • alternative hypothesis;
  • P value;
  • Bayesian methods;
  • type I error;
  • type II error