Standard Article

Randomization Tests

  1. Sylvan B. Green

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a15130

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Green, S. B. 2005. Randomization Tests. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 6.

Author Information

  1. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


In an experiment with random treatment assignment, the distribution of any test statistic may be obtained by considering all the possible treatment assignments that might have been made, assuming the observed data. A test of the null hypothesis that the treatments have equal effects follows. Confidence intervals may similarly be obtained.


  • permutation;
  • assignment;
  • null hypothesis;
  • significance;
  • confidence;
  • residuals;
  • misspecification;
  • simultaneous