Standard Article

Sequential Analysis

  1. T. L. Lai

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a15141

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Lai, T. L. 2005. Sequential Analysis. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 7.

Author Information

  1. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


This article gives an overview of sequential analysis and its applications to data and safety monitoring of clinical trials, determination of median effective dose and maximum tolerated dose, fixed-width confidence intervals, and adaptive design of biomedical studies.


  • group sequential tests;
  • sequential design;
  • stochastic approximation;
  • fixed-width confidence intervals;
  • backward induction