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Youden Squares and Row–Column Designs

  1. Sudhir Gupta

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/0470011815.b2a16081

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

Encyclopedia of Biostatistics

How to Cite

Gupta, S. 2005. Youden Squares and Row–Column Designs. Encyclopedia of Biostatistics. 8.

Author Information

  1. Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Often several other factors potentially contribute to the variability of the observed response in addition to the treatments or factors under investigation. For example, gender, age, and center may also affect the blood pressure of patients in a placebo-controlled hypertensive clinical trial. The technique of blocking is used to control the experimental error variation due to these types of extraneous sources. Two sources can be controlled using a Youden square or a row–column design, the rows and columns comprising two different systems of blocking. This article provides the details for the least squares analysis of these designs. Designs having variance balance, supplemented balance, row-orthogonality, adjusted-orthogonality, designs for factorial experiments, and computer algorithms for constructing designs are also briefly discussed.


  • balanced incomplete block design;
  • block design;
  • complete block design;
  • incomplete block design;
  • Latin square design;
  • row–column design;
  • variance balance;
  • Youden square design