Chapter 11. Nuclear Reprogramming by Xenopus Oocytes

  1. Gregory Bock Organizer and
  2. Jamie Goode
  1. J. B. Gurdon,
  2. J. A. Byrne and
  3. S. Simonsson

Published Online: 7 OCT 2008

DOI: 10.1002/0470091452.ch11

Stem Cells: Nuclear Reprogramming and Therapeutic Applications: Novartis Foundation Symposium 265

Stem Cells: Nuclear Reprogramming and Therapeutic Applications: Novartis Foundation Symposium 265

How to Cite

Gurdon, J. B., Byrne, J. A. and Simonsson, S. (2005) Nuclear Reprogramming by Xenopus Oocytes, in Stem Cells: Nuclear Reprogramming and Therapeutic Applications: Novartis Foundation Symposium 265 (eds G. Bock and J. Goode), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/0470091452.ch11

Author Information

  1. Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, and Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 7 OCT 2008
  2. Published Print: 18 MAR 2005

Book Series:

  1. Novartis Foundation Symposia

Book Series Editors:

  1. Novartis Foundation

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470091432

Online ISBN: 9780470091456

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Keywords:

  • reprogramming;
  • cell replacement in humans;
  • heterokaryon cell hybrids;
  • nuclear transplantation;
  • amphibian nuclear transfer;
  • oocytes;
  • Xenopus oocytes;
  • multiple somatic cell nuclei;
  • stem cell marker gene, Oct4

Summary

The aim of this contribution is to relate amphibian nuclear transplantation work to prospects for stem cell creation and hence to the long-term aim of cell replacement in humans. The methods used include the transplantation of single somatic cell nuclei to enucleated unfertilized eggs of Xenopus, and also the transfer of multiple somatic cell nuclei to the nucleus (germinal vesicle) of a growing ovarian oocyte. A key difference between these types of recipient cell is that eggs immediately induce DNA replication in transplanted nuclei, whereas an oocyte induces no DNA replication, but directly reprograms an injected nucleus to a new pattern of transcriptional activity. We summarize the extent and success of past and current nuclear reprogramming in experiments with enucleated frog eggs, and also those carried out with growing oocytes. We discuss possible mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming, and the possible contribution of such knowledge for stem cell creation and cell replacement in humans.